Appendix D. Dual-User Option Information

The following sections and illustrations present information that is applicable to the setup and operation of the dual-user option for the dual-head, dual-processor or higher rackmount version of the Silicon Graphics Tezro visual workstation. This is known as the PowerDuo option.

The following sections and illustrations present information that is applicable to the setup and operation of the dual-user option for the rackmount version of the Silicon Graphics Tezro visual workstation.

Setup, configuration, and use of the option is covered in the following sections:

PowerDuo Option Requirements

In order to fully function as a dual-user system, your Tezro rackmount workstation must have the following:

  • Dual-head graphics (two graphics boards)

  • Two or four system processors

  • A USB PCI card

  • A second monitor

  • A second keyboard and mouse

  • A second hard drive (not required but highly recommended)

General Setup Information

Read and follow these instructions carefully:

  1. Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the product and noted in the documentation included with this product.

  2. A USB PCI card is required for this option. The USB card can be installed in either enclosure. If you need to install the USB PCI card, see “PCI and PCI–X Cards” in Chapter 3 for instructions.

  3. If your Tezro dual-user option has been set up by SGI professional services you may be ready to start working.

  4. Use the information in this appendix if you need to setup or reconfigure the system.

Connecting a Monitor to the Workstation Expansion Enclosure

Use the Digital Video Interface-Integrated (DVI-I) to VGA cable to connect the DVI-I (analog and digital) VPro graphics board to a VGA connector on a VGA CRT monitor. Optional digital LCD monitors use a digital DVI-D cable. See Figure D-1 for an example.

Your dual-user option may be ordered with a choice of monitor types and/or sizes depending on your application and system requirements.

Tezro VPro graphics expansion enclosures use the DVI monitor connector on the rear to connect using either of the following:

  • Digital (LCD) display DVI-D connection cable

  • Analog DVI-A cable to a CRT or LCD display

    Caution: Ensure that the electrical rating on the monitor label matches the outlet voltage range (100–120 VAC or 220–240 VAC) before you plug in the monitor.

When you use a monitor in locations that do not have the appropriate outlets, contact your SGI system support engineer (SSE) before plugging in the monitor power cable.

Plug in and turn on your monitor as described in the documentation that accompanies your monitor.

Note: If you are using a monitor that was not shipped with your workstation and it has adjustable RGB connectors, ensure that they are in the 75-ohm position; otherwise, the monitor displays incorrect colors.

Figure D-1. Connecting a Monitor to the Workstation Expansion Enclosure

Connecting a Monitor to the Workstation Expansion Enclosure

Keyboard and Mouse Connection

Your dual-user option is shipped with a 101-key USB keyboard and a USB mouse. You may plug the keyboard and mouse directly into the USB connectors of the workstation expansion enclosure (see Figure D-2), or you can use an optional USB extender (not a standard part of the dual-user upgrade) that allows you to place the keyboard and mouse up to 328.68 feet (100 m) from the workstation (see Figure D-3).

Figure D-2. USB Keyboard and Mouse Connected Directly to the Tezro Enclosure

USB Keyboard and Mouse Connected Directly to the Tezro Enclosure

You can have one keyboard and one mouse for each Tezro workstation enclosure (a maximum of two per system). The second keyboard/mouse option is always USB. The optional local extender (LEX) receives AC power from the power distribution unit (PDU) in the rack. A 6-ft. (1.82-m) adapter cable connects the extender's power adapter to the PDU. The remote extender (REX) does not use an external power source.

Figure D-3. Second Keyboard and Mouse Connected via Optional USB Extender

Second Keyboard and Mouse Connected via Optional USB Extender

Enabling PowerDuo Software

To enable PowerDuo operation, you must back up your original Xservers file and then install a new Xservers file. Use the following steps to enable this functionality:

  1. From the system Toolchest select Desktop, then select Open UNIX Shell.

Become superuser by typing su.

  1. At the prompt, type:

cp /var/X11/xdm/Xservers /var/X11/xdm/Xservers.1key

  1. At the prompt, type:

cp /var/X11/xdm/Xservers.3key /var/X11/xdm/Xservers

Open the Xservers file using vi (or another line editor) and delete the :2 line. The two remaining lines should appear similar to the following:
:0 secure /usr/bin/X11/X :0 -boards 0 -devdir /dev/input -bs ...
:1 secure /usr/bin/X11/X :1 -boards 1 -devdir /dev/input1 -bs ...

  1. Save the file, then type exit to exit superuser mode.

  2. Restart the system. Your system is enabled for two users after the system is restarted.

There is now a separate login for each monitor.

Returning the System to Single-User Use

To configure your PowerDuo system to function as a dual-head, single-user system (that is, for both monitors to be used simultaneously by one person), use the following instructions:

  1. Log in to the system on head 0 as root:

From the Toolchest click on Desktop, then select Open a UNIX Shell.

  1. At the prompt, type:

cp /var/X11/xdm/Xservers.1key /var/X11/xdm/Xservers

  1. Gracefully shut down the system.

  2. Unplug the second keyboard and mouse.

  3. Restart the system.

Configuring the USB Keyboard and Mouse

The ioconfig(1m) command establishes logical device numbers for each keyboard and mouse connected to the workstation. When the system first initializes the USB hardware, it scans each USB bus looking for devices. Later in the boot process, the ioconfig(1m) command assigns device IDs based on the contents of the file /etc/ioconfig.conf.

If the device is already represented in ioconfig.conf, the associated device ID is assigned. If the device is new (not already in ioconfig.conf), a new device ID is allocated and assigned, and a corresponding entry is appended to the ioconfig.conf file.

Each line in the ioconfig.conf file is a two-column entry. The left column is the numeric logical device ID (0 in our example), and the right column is the hardware path pointing to the device. Note the following example:

0 /hw/module/001c01/IXbrick/xtalk/15/pci-x/1/1a/usb/1/keyboard
0 /hw/module/001c01/IXbrick/xtalk/15/pci-x/1/1b/usb/1/mouse

The device IDs are unique only among devices of a given type. Different device types may use overlapping device IDs.

For USB devices, the hardware path is divided into two parts: the USB controller prefix, and the USB relative path. The controller prefix is the portion of the path up to and including the component “usb.” Note the following example:


The controller prefix encodes the hardware components leading to the USB controller. In the previous example, the controller path indicates that there is a USB controller at PCI bus 1 of the expansion enclosure located at 001c01.

The USB relative path is the portion of the path after the “usb” component. This path indicates the path leading from the controller to the actual device. The path is a series of numeric components terminated with a device type. The numeric components represent USB hub port numbers.

Multiple numeric components represent multiple layers of USB hubs, with the leftmost component representing the root hub, or the hub built into the USB controller.

The following example indicates a keyboard device attached to port 1 of a hub, which is attached to port 1 of the root hub:


The following example shows a mouse attached to port 2 of the same hub:


You can use the hinv command to display the ID of a device. See the hinv(1) man page for additional information. Note that the hinv command only confirms the presence of the devices.

The device ID of a keyboard or mouse determines under which /dev/input directory the keyboard or mouse is placed. A keyboard or mouse with device ID 0 will be placed under /dev/input (for historical reasons), while a device (such as the expansion enclosure) with an ID of 1 will be placed under /dev/input1.

When the X Window System server starts, the -devdir option controls which directory is searched for input devices. By default, /dev/input is used. The XWindow System server configuration file is:

:0 secure /usr/bin/X11/X :0 -boards 0 -devdir /dev/input -bs ...
:1 secure /usr/bin/X11/X :1 -boards 1 -devdir /dev/input1 -bs ...

Note that it is the second line in the file that activates the second keyboard and the default Xservers file has only one line (without -devdir).

Mounting the Second Drive

For the second drive to be usable, it needs to be mounted. To mount the drive, follow these steps:

  1. Log in to the system as root.

  2. Go to Toolchest > System > System Manager > Hardware and Devices > Disk Manager. You will see a list of installed disk drives.

  3. Select the drive you wish to mount, and click the Mount button.

  4. Select a file system to mount (the default choice will usually be correct).

  5. Click Next.

  6. In the window that appears, type a mount point. For example, /disk2.

  7. Click Next.

  8. Check the box that says Let local users change filesystem contents.

  9. Click Next.

  10. Check the box that says Mount every time the system starts.

  11. Click Next.

  12. Double check the settings, and, if they look correct, click OK.

    Tip: The settings will include one that says Contents of existing directory will be hidden. This refers to the contents of the directory on which the drive is being mounted (/disk2, for example), and should be fine.

  13. Click OK to close the window that reports successful completion.

  14. Click Close to close the Disk Manager window.

  15. Select File > Exit to exit the System Manager window.

The disk is now mounted.

Adding Swap Space

The following procedure is a recommendation for creating a swap file on the optional second drive. Create more swap space only if you believe the swap space on the system disk is insufficient and you know how much more swap space you want to add.

Note: The swap space on the system disk must have a different priority number than the swap space on the second (option) disk.

To set up additional swap space, determine the amount of swap space on the system disk, and use that as a guideline to determine how much swap space to add.

  1. Log in to the system as root.

  2. Go to Toolchest > System > System Manager > System Performance > Swap Manager.

  3. When the Swap Manager window appears, note the amount of swap space currently configured on the system disk (this information will be shown in the Physical column).

  4. Click Add.

  5. Click Next.

    The Add Real Swap Space dialog box appears. (Read all the information in every dialog box.)

  6. Type in your chosen amount of swap space. You may enter the same amount that was on the system disk (typically 128 MB) or you can enter a different value.

  7. Select the filesystem that represents the disk to which you have chosen to add the swap file, for example, /dev/dsk/sks0d2s7.

    Note: At this point you can choose to add additional swap space to either disk.

  8. Click Next.

  9. Click OK to confirm your settings.

  10. Click OK to acknowledge completion.

  11. Click Close to close the Swap Manager window.

You are finished adding swap space.

For additional information on adding swap space, go to Toolchest > Help > Online Books > SGI Admin. See IRIX Admin: System Configuration and Operation (refer to Chapter 6, “Configuring Disk and Swap Space”) and IRIX Admin: Disks and Filesystems.

Adding Users

It is recommended that you place additional user accounts on the second (option) disk.

To add an additional user, follow these instructions:

  1. Log in to the system as root.

  2. Go to Toolchest > System > System Manager > Security and Access Control.

  3. Click the Add a User Account icon.

    The dialog box appears. Read the information in this and every dialog box before proceeding.

  4. Click Next.

  5. Type a username for the new user.

  6. Click Next.

  7. Type the new user's full name.

  8. Click Next.

  9. Press Next to accept the Local Account default.

  10. Choose one of the Password options.

  11. Click Next.

  12. If you chose to add a password, enter it now (in both boxes), then click Next.

  13. To accept the unique, automatically generated User ID (number), click Next.

  14. To accept the default Primary Group for the new user, click Next.

  15. In the Home Directory window, remove the default /usr/people/username directory.

    Because it is recommended that you place all users on the second (option) disk, rather than the system disk, replace the default /usr/people/username directory with the home directory of the new user on the option disk.

    To do this, type the path to a location on the disk to which you wish to add the new users. For example, /disk2/username.

  16. Select Verify and create as needed.

  17. Click Next.

  18. To accept the default shell program, csh, click Next.

  19. Confirm that the settings are correct, and click OK.

You are finished adding the new user.

Selecting the Head on Which a Program Runs

During an interactive session with the Window Manager, you can use the DISPLAY environment variable to control the head on which newly started graphics programs run. When DISPLAY is set to :0.0, programs you start run on head 0 (the primary head); when it is set to :1.0, programs you start run on head 1 (the secondary head).

For convenience, the default startup files (.login, .profile) for root and guest shells set DISPLAY to a reasonable initial value, if it is not already set. Each head has a toolchest that can be used to launch graphics programs. Each toolchest has the DISPLAY variable in its environment set to the correct value for the head on which it appears, so any application you launch from a toolchest inherits this DISPLAY value, and thus appears on the same head as the toolchest from which it was invoked.

Similarly, programs started by clicking an icon appear on the head from which you launched them.

Once a program has been launched, it is not possible to move it from one head to another from the Window Manager.

Operating Tips for Dual User Systems

Your Tezro rackmount workstation is normally used by a single operator. This section contains tips and cautions for “Duo” system users. Be sure to check your system release notes for any additional information that might pertain to dual users.

When using the workstation as a Duo system, keep this information in mind:

  • Simultaneous use of head 0 and head 1 by users in the same login account is not supported.

  • System start up, shut down, and warning messages appear only on the primary head, as does the System Maintenance Menu.

  • When using the Toolchest > Find menu, do not use File QuickFind or Host QuickFind, as these appear simultaneously on both the primary and secondary heads. Instead, use Toolchest > Find > Search For Files.

  • If a System Administration tool launched from the desktop does not complete a function, despite being supplied with the root password, the same application may currently be running under a second account on the Duo system. Table D-1 provides a list of additional dual-user task specific information.

    Table D-1. Dual User Task Specific Information



    Determine the head on which you are running

    From Toolchest > Desktop select Open UNIX Shell.

    At the prompt, type printenv DISPLAY.

    Look for the listing DISPLAY = 0.0 or DISPLAY = 1.0 .

    Head 0 is the primary head.

    Head 1 is the secondary head.

    System administration tasks

    Use head 0.

    Logging in to a remote system from the secondary head (head 1)

    In head 1 Toolchest > Desktop select Open UNIX Shell

    Log in to the remote system. Type:
    rlogin guest@remotehost 

    At the prompt, type: setenv DISPLAY localhost :1 

    (where localhost is the name of your system).

    The remotely displayed information from the remote host will now display to the secondary head (head 1). Without entering this command, the remotely displayed information would display to the primary head (head 0).


    When using rsh, use:
    rsh user@remotehost -display localhost :1 

    (where localhost is the name of your system).

    This command causes the output to appear on head 1.

    To run an application on a remote host and display it on head 1, use:
    rsh remotehost applicationname -display localhost :1 

    (where localhost is the name of your system and applicationname is the application you are running).

    Using an icon to launch an application

    Launch the application from the head you want to use. The icon always appears on the head from which it was launched.

    Changing a monitor setting

    After changing the setting, always log out and then log back in.

    Hot plugging a mouse, keyboard or other serial device.

    Hot plugging any serial device is not supported. (Hot plugging is attaching a device while the system is running.)

    Using audio when the Duo system is enabled

    Audio is not supported when the Duo system is enabled. Power off or disconnect speakers when the Duo system is enabled.

Configuring the PS/2 Keyboard and Mouse

Tezro rack mounted workstations come standard with two PS/2 ports which are normally used for the first keyboard and mouse. The second keyboard and mouse are normally connected to a PCI based USB card as shown in Figure D-2. This USB card is normally in the base enclosure, but will work as well in the expansion enclosure.

Note: The PS/2 ports are only active on the base module since the workstation expansion enclosure has no IO9 card (which enables PS/2 functionality).

Following are typical ioconfig.conf file entries showing device IDs of 0 and 1 applying to PS/2 and USB keyboard/mouse pairs:

0 /hw/module/001c01/IXbrick/xtalk/15/pci-x/0/1/keyboard
0 /hw/module/001c01/IXbrick/xtalk/15/pci-x/0/1/mouse
1 /hw/module/001c01/IXbrick/xtalk/15/pci-x/1/1a/usb/2/mouse
1 /hw/module/001c01/IXbrick/xtalk/15/pci-x/1/1b/usb/2/keyboard

As listed in the previous section, the device IDs of 0 and 1 apply to PS/2 and USB as a single group rather than being 0 for both.

The default for Tezro is PS/2 before USB, however, the workstation can be manually configured either way (see “Reconfiguring the Keyboard and Mouse Manually”).

In the Tezro rack mounted workstation, PS/2 is the primary keyboard/mouse connection. If you are altering the workstation's keyboard/mouse configuration, consider the following setup information:

The keyboard/mouse entries in /etc/ioconfig.conf are added automatically during hardware discovery at boot time. By default, the PS/2 entries will get automatically added first, followed by the USB entries.

At subsequent reboots, the existing entries in /etc/ioconfig.conf will not be changed, but any additional entries will be added using the next higher logical device numbers. In some SGI systems the USB connections take precedence over the PS/2 connections.

Reconfiguring the Keyboard and Mouse Manually

If it becomes necessary to reconfigure the keyboard or mouse layout, manual configuration is necessary. Reasons for reconfiguration may include the following:

  • Adding a new keyboard and mouse

  • Moving a keyboard and mouse

To reconfigure the keyboard and mouse setup, follow these steps:

  1. Add or move devices as necessary and edit the /etc/ioconfig.conf file to reflect the correct order (or remove this file to get the default ordering assigned).

  2. Run /sbin/ioconfig -f /hw to apply step 1 and check the resulting /etc/ioconfig.conf file for correctness. To make any additional changes repeat step 1.

  3. Run /usr/gfx/stopgfx to shut down the graphics subsystem. Restart the graphics subsystem using the command /usr/gfx/startgfx to implement the ioconfig.conf file changes.

    Note: The stopgfx/startgfx sequence requires remote access since the keyboard/mouse are disabled by issuing the stopgfx command.

Steps 1 and 2 allow you to bind the devices in your new configuration to the correct IDs. Because a keyboard and mouse with the same ID are put in the same /dev/inputX directory, you must ensure that the keyboard and mouse pair used by a given X server has the same ID.

Note: If the ioconfig command fails to find any of the devices you expect to see in the /etc/ioconfig.conf file, rebooting the system is recommended.

Running the ioconfig command or rebooting the system causes new keyboards and mice to be added to the ioconfig.conf files using the next higher device IDs. Steps 1 and 2 are only needed if you change the device IDs.

To move keyboards or mice to different ports, follow steps 1 and 2. Otherwise the old location information remains (within the ioconfig.conf file) even after the new positions are added.

Note: If you boot the system in this mode and plug in a keyboard or mouse after the system is running, you must restart the graphics system (repeat steps 2 and 3 from the previous sequence) to use the devices.

If the ioconfig.conf file needs to be re-created using all the default device IDs, rename or remove the ioconfig.conf file and reboot the system. At system startup all operational devices plugged into the system are put into a new ioconfig.conf file.