This chapter gives instructions on how to compile and debug a parallel Fortran program. It contains the following sections:
“Compiling and Running Parallel Fortran ”, explains how to compile and run a parallel Fortran program.
“Profiling a Parallel Fortran Program”, describes how to use the system profiler, prof, to examine execution profiles.
“Debugging Parallel Fortran”, presents some standard techniques for debugging a parallel Fortran program.
After you have written a program for parallel processing, you should debug your program in a single-processor environment by using the Fortran compiler with the f77 command. After your program has executed successfully on a single processor, you can compile it for multiprocessing.
To enable multiprocessing, add -mp to the f77 command line. This option causes the Fortran compiler to generate multiprocessing code for the files being compiled. When linking, you can specify both object files produced with the -mp option and object files produced without it. If any or all of the files are compiled with -mp, the executable must be linked with -mp so that the correct libraries are used.
Multiprocessing implementation demands some use of the stack to allow multiple threads of execution to execute the same code simultaneously. Therefore, the parallel DO loops themselves are compiled with the -automatic option, even if the routine enclosing them is compiled with -static.
This means that SHARE variables in a parallel loop behave correctly according to the -static semantics but that LOCAL variables in a parallel loop do not (see “Debugging Parallel Fortran”, for a description of SHARE and LOCAL variables).
Finally, if the parallel loop calls an external routine, that external routine cannot be compiled with -static. You can mix static and multiprocessed object files in the same executable; the restriction is that a static routine cannot be called from within a parallel loop.
The following command line compiles and links the Fortran program foo.f into a multiprocessor executable:
% f77 -mp foo.f
In the following example, the Fortran routines in the file snark.f are compiled with multiprocess code generation enabled:
% f77 -c -mp -O2 snark.f
The optimizer is also used. A standard snark.o binary file is produced, which must be linked:
% f77 -mp -o boojum snark.o bellman.o
Here, the -mp option signals the linker to use the Fortran multiprocessing library. The bellman.o file did not have to be compiled with the -mp option, although it could be.
After linking, the resulting executable can be run like any standard executable. Creating multiple execution threads, running and synchronizing them, and task termination are all handled automatically.
When an executable has been linked with -mp, the Fortran initialization routines determine how many parallel threads of execution to create. This determination occurs each time the task starts; the number of threads is not compiled into the code. The default is to use whichever is less: 4 or the number of processors that are on the machine (the value returned by the system call sysmp(MP_NAPROCS); see the sysmp(2) reference page). You can override the default by setting the MP_SET_NUMTHREADS shell environment variable. If it is set, Fortran tasks use the specified number of execution threads regardless of the number of processors physically present on the machine. MP_SET_NUMTHREADS can be a value from 1 to 64.
After converting a program, you need to examine execution profiles to judge the effectiveness of the transformation. Good execution profiles of the program are crucial to help you focus on the loops that consume the most time.
IRIX provides profiling tools that can be used on Fortran parallel programs. Both pixie(1) and pc-sample profiling can be used (pc-sampling can help show the system overhead). On jobs that use multiple threads, both these methods will create multiple profile data files, one for each thread. You can use the standard profile analyzer prof(1) to examine this output. Also, timex (1) indicates if the parallelized versions performed better overall than the serial version.
The profile of a Fortran parallel job is different from a standard profile. To produce a parallel program, the compiler pulls the parallel DO loops out into separate subroutines, one routine for each loop. Each of these loops is shown as a separate procedure in the profile. Comparing the amount of time spent in each loop by the various threads shows how well the workload is balanced.
In addition to the loops, the profile shows the special routines that actually do the multiprocessing. The __mp_parallel_do routine is the synchronizer and controller. Slave threads wait for work in the routine __mp_slave_wait_for_work. The less time they wait, the more time they work. This gives a rough estimate of a program's parallelization.
The following list describes some standard debugging tips:
Debugging a multiprocessed program is much more difficult than debugging a single-processor program. Therefore you should do as much debugging as possible on the single-processor version.
Try to isolate the problem as much as possible. Ideally, try to reduce the problem to a single C$DOACROSS loop.
Before debugging a multiprocessed program, change the order of the iterations on the parallel DO loop on a single-processor version. If the loop can be multiprocessed, then the iterations can execute in any order and produce the same answer. If the loop cannot be multiprocessed, changing the order frequently causes the single-processor version to fail, and standard single-process debugging techniques can be used to find the problem.
When debugging a program using dbx, use the ignore TERM command. When debugging a program using cvd, select Views/Signal Panel, then select disable SIGTERM. Debugging is possible without these commands, but the program may not terminate gracefully after execution is complete.
In this example, the two references to a have the indexes in reverse order, causing a bug. If the indexes were in the same order (if both were a(i,j) or both were a(j,i)), the loop could be multiprocessed. As written, there is a data dependency, so the C$DOACROSS is a mistake.
c$doacross local(i,j) do i = 1, n do j = 1, n a(i,j) = a(j,i) + x*b(i) end do end do
Because a (correct) multiprocessed loop can execute its iterations in any order, you could rewrite this as:
c$doacross local(i,j) do i = n, 1, −1 do j = 1, n a(i,j) = a(j,i) + x*b(i) end do end do
This loop no longer gives the same answer as the original even when compiled without the -mp option. This reduces the problem to a normal debugging problem. When a multiprocessed loop is giving the wrong answer, perform the following checks:
Check the LOCAL variables when the code runs correctly as a single process but fails when multiprocessed. Carefully check any scalar variables that appear in the left-hand side of an assignment statement in the loop to be sure they are all declared LOCAL. Be sure to include the index of any loop nested inside the parallel loop.
A related problem occurs when you need the final value of a variable but the variable is declared LOCAL rather than LASTLOCAL. If the use of the final value happens several hundred lines farther down in the code, or if the variable is in a COMMON block and the final value is used in a completely separate routine, a variable can look as if it is LOCAL when in fact it should be LASTLOCAL. To fix this problem, declare all the LOCAL variables LASTLOCAL when debugging a loop.
Check for arrays with complicated subscripts. If the array subscripts are simply the index variables of a DO loop, the analysis is probably correct. If the subscripts are more involved, they are a good choice to examine first.
Check for the use of uninitialized variables. Some programs assume uninitialized variables have a value of 0. This works with the -static option, but without it, uninitialized values assume the value that is left on the stack. When compiling with -mp, the program executes differently and the stack contents are different. You should suspect this type of problem when a program compiled with -mp and run on a single processor gives a different result than when it is compiled without -mp. One way to check a problem of this type is to compile suspected routines with -static. If an uninitialized variable is the problem, it should be fixed by initializing the variable rather than by continuing to compile with -static.
Try compiling with the -C option for range checking on array references. If arrays are indexed out of bounds, a memory location may be referenced in unexpected ways. This is particularly true of adjacent arrays in a COMMON block.
If the analysis of the loop was incorrect, one or more arrays that are SHARE may have data dependencies. This sort of error is seen only when running multiprocessed code. When stepping through the code in the debugger, the program executes correctly. This sort of error is usually seen only intermittently; the program works correctly most of the time.
As a final solution, print out all the values of all the subscripts on each iteration through the loop. Then use the uniq(1) command to look for duplicates. If duplicates are found, there is a data dependency.
EQUIVALENCE statements affect storage of local variables and can cause data dependencies when parallelizing code. EQUIVALENCE statements with local variables cause the storage location to be statically allocated (initialized to zero and saved between calls to the subroutine).
In particular, if a loop without equivalenced variables calls a subroutine that appears in the scope of a directive ASSERT CONNCURENT CALL which does have equivalenced local variables, a data dependency occurs. This is because the equivalenced storage locations are statically allocated.