Chapter 4. Managing Media and Backup Devices

This chapter discusses the choices in the Media menu used for managing media and standalone backup devices.  Commands in the Media menu for operating an autochanger (also called a jukebox) are described in Chapter 7, “Autochanger Software Module.”

This chapter describes the following operations:

Tip: If you back up to an autochanger (also called a jukebox), you need to purchase the Autochanger Software Module.  A separate Autochanger Software Module license is required for each autochanger connected to the NetWorker server.  Autochangers are licensed according to the number of storage slots they contain.

Labeling and Mounting Backup Volumes

This section applies only if you label and mount volumes in a standalone backup device.  If you need to label multiple volumes for an autochanger, see Chapter 7, “Autochanger Software Module.”

You must label and mount a backup volume before NetWorker can use it to back up or recover files.  NetWorker uses the volume labels to maintain a record of each backup volume in the online media index.  This index is used by NetWorker to determine which volumes are needed for backing up or recovering data.

Your NetWorker server may have one or more backup devices connected to it.  The current device selected in the Devices display of the NetWorker Administrator window also appears in the Jukebox Labeling dialog box.

Navigating the Label Dialog Box

Use the Label dialog box to label backup volumes in a standalone device.

To open the Label dialog box click the Label speedbar button (shown in Figure 4-1) or choose Label from the Media menu.

Figure 4-1. Label Button

Figure 4-1 Label Button

The Label dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 4-2.

Figure 4-2. Label Dialog Box

Figure 4-2 Label Dialog Box

The contents of the Label dialog box are described below:

  • Device field—contains the name of the selected device.  To select another device, click Cancel to close the Label dialog box, then highlight the new device in the NetWorker Administrator window, and reselect the Label command.

  • Volume name field—contains the label that will be assigned to the volume and displays the name of the volume mounted in the backup device.  NetWorker automatically assigns the next sequential label from the label template associated with the chosen pool.  If you do not want NetWorker to use the preselected label template, delete the contents in the Volume name field and enter a new name for the backup volume.

  • Pool choices—choose a volume pool from the Pool choices.  Only pools enabled from the Pools window appear in the Label dialog box (most preconfigured pools are automatically enabled).  NetWorker automatically uses the label template associated with the selected pool to label a backup volume.  For more information on volume pools, see the section “Using Volume Pools”.

  • Manual recycle toggle button—select if you want to manually recycle a backup volume.  When a backup volume is marked “manual recycle,” NetWorker disregards the assigned retention policy.  Manual recycle mode is explained in the section “Volumes Scrolling List” in this chapter.

  • Mount after labeling toggle buttonselected by default.  Deselect if you only want to label volumes and not mount them.  You may prelabel as many volumes as you like to label at one time without mounting them by deselecting the Mount after labeling toggle button.

  • Ok buttonclick to label or mount a backup volume.  If you make a mistake, click the Cancel button.

Any time you try to relabel a volume that already has a valid NetWorker label, NetWorker prompts you with a notice to make sure you really want to relabel the volume.

Labeling and Mounting in One Operation

To label and mount a backup volume in one operation, follow these steps:

  1. Place a blank volume in the NetWorker server backup device.

  2. Highlight the device in the Devices display in the NetWorker Administrator window.

  3. Open the Label dialog box by clicking the Label speedbar button or by choosing Label from the Media menu.

  4. Choose a volume pool from the Pool choices.

  5. Delete the name from the Volume name field. If you want a label different than the one chosen by the label template, enter the new name.

  6. Make your selection for Manual recycle and click the Mount after labeling toggle button.

  7. Click the Ok button when you are ready to label and mount the volume.  If you make a mistake, click the Cancel button to cancel the operation.

    A dialog box appears, asking you to confirm your request.  Click OK to confirm the labeling request or Cancel to quit the request.

When you complete labeling and mounting, the backup volume name appears in the Devices window of the NetWorker Administrator program beside the pathname of the device.  (The name of the volume appears only if it has been mounted.)

Caution: Relabeling a backup volume destroys all records of its contents under the old label.  That is why NetWorker asks for confirmation with the prompt “About to relabel.”  For more information about relabeling backup volumes, see “Manually Managing the Online Indexes”.

Understanding How to Label Backup Volumes

You must label a backup volume before you can use it for backing up files.  Labeling a backup volume provides NetWorker with a unique name for tracking and recognizing the media.

Note: Use an autochanger (jukebox) to automate volume labeling and mounting operations.  See “Chapter 7, “Autochanger Software Module,” for details.

Every backup volume belongs to a volume pool.  You may use the preconfigured pools or create your own.  If you do not select a volume pool for your backup volumes, NetWorker automatically uses the preconfigured Default pool. 

Each volume pool has a matching label template associated with it.  NetWorker uses the label template associated with the pool you choose in the Label dialog box.  Backup volumes are labeled according to the rules of these label templates.  Label templates provide a method for consistently naming and labeling your backup volumes.  Use the preconfigured label templates, or create custom label templates, using the Label Templates dialog box.

For more information about volume pools, see the section “Using Volume Pools”.  For more information about label templates, see the section “Using Label Templates”.

NetWorker automatically labels backup volumes with the next sequential label from the associated template.  Label names are recorded internally on the media, creating an internal volume label.  Each backup volume should have an adhesive label attached to it that matches the internal volume label.

Each backup volume requires a unique label.  If you choose not to use a preconfigured label template, you may create your own label templates with names appropriate for your network.  No matter what naming scheme you choose, keep in mind that it must be easy for operators and administrators to understand.

Create individual label names not associated with a template by deleting the label template name from the Volume Name text box in the Label dialog box and entering a unique label name.

Tip: Each NetWorker server has its own collection of backup volumes.  If you have more than one NetWorker server, you may find it helpful to label your backup volumes with the name of the server and a number.  For example:


This backup volume is from the NetWorker server named atlas.


This backup volume is from the NetWorker server named mars.

Use the Label dialog box to label a backup volume or to label and immediately mount a volume in the backup device.  Once labeled and mounted, a volume is available for backups.  You may label several volumes at once without mounting any of them by deselecting the Mount after labeling toggle button.

Mounting and Unmounting Backup Volumes

Before you can back up or recover files from a volume, you must mount the volume in the server backup device.  If you use an autochanger, NetWorker automatically mounts backup volumes for backups and recovers.

All backup devices recognized by NetWorker appear in the Devices window of the NetWorker Administrator program.  Select the device you need from the Devices window before you begin to mount or unmount a backup volume.

Use the speedbar buttons (shown in Figure 4-3) to mount and unmount backup volumes, or choose the Mount and Unmount commands from the Media menu.

Figure 4-3. Mount and Unmount Buttons

Figure 4-3 Mount and Unmount Buttons

Mounting Backup Volumes

When a backup volume is required for a standalone device, NetWorker uses the following hierarchy to select a volume from the appropriate backup volume pool:

  • an already mounted, appendable volume

  • an already mounted, recyclable volume not currently in use

  • an already mounted, unlabeled volume not currently in use and in a device for which Auto media management is enabled in the Devices window

  • an appendable volume not currently mounted in the device

  • a recyclable volume not currently mounted in the device

To mount a backup volume in a specific device, follow these steps:

  1. Select the device name in the Devices display of the NetWorker Administrator window.

  2. Click the Mount speedbar button.

The Devices display changes to show the name of the mounted backup volume listed next to the device pathname.

Caution: To perform an unattended backup using a standalone device, you must premount backup volumes.

If you try to back up files when a backup volume is not mounted, or when a backup volume is full, NetWorker requests a new writable volume with the following message in the Pending display:

media waiting: backup to pool `Default'
waiting for 1 writable backup tape or disk

You receive a message suggesting that you mount a volume, relabel a volume, or label a new volume.

If you are recovering files, NetWorker requests the backup volume name you need to mount in the device:

media waiting: recover waiting for 8mm 5GB tape_volume_name 

If you need more than one backup volume to recover the files, the Pending display gives you a list of all the backup volumes in the order they are needed.  During the recovery process, NetWorker requests the backup volumes it needs, one at a time.  If you back up to an autochanger, NetWorker automatically mounts backup volumes stored in the autochanger.

Unmounting Backup Volumes

To unmount a backup volume from a specific backup device, follow these steps:

  1. Select the name of the device in the Devices display.

  2. Click the Unmount speedbar button.

Finding a Backup Volume Name

If the physical label on the backup volume is missing or illegible, you can determine its name by using one of two methods:

  • Click the Mount speedbar button to mount the volume in the backup device.  The volume name appears next to the device name in the Devices display.

  • Load the volume into a device and select the Label speedbar button.  When the Label dialog box appears, the name of the magnetic label is displayed in the Volume name field.  Click Cancel to avoid accidentally renaming the volume.

In either case, make sure to write the label name onto the physical tape label.

Automatically Managing Backup Volumes

NetWorker uses browse and retention policies to manage your backup volumes and their save sets automatically.  However, you may manually override the automatic policies by using the different commands in the Volumes window.

For more information about browse and retention policies, see “Creating Index Policies”.

Manually Managing Backup Volumes

NetWorker provides flexibility in determining how to manage your backup volumes and their save sets.  You can allow NetWorker to automatically manage your volumes, or you can use the Volumes window to manage your backup volumes manually.

Navigating the Volumes Window

The Volumes window contains information about the media index.  It displays information about the collection of backup volumes known to the NetWorker server and the save sets they contain.

To view information about your backup volumes, open the Volumes window by clicking the Volumes speedbar button (shown in Figure 4-4), or by choosing Volumes from the Media menu.

Figure 4-4. Volumes Button

Figure 4-4 Volumes Button

The Volume Management window appears, as shown in Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-5. Volume Management Window

Figure 4-5 Volume Management Window

The Volume Management window displays the following information.

  • Volumes scrolling list—contains the names of the backup volumes, sorted in alphabetical order for the current server.

  • Save Sets scrolling list—contains the names of the save sets stored on the backup volume selected in the Volumes scrolling list.

Volumes Scrolling List

The Volumes scrolling list contains the names of the backup volumes for the current server.  The list is sorted in alphabetical and numerical order and contains the following information:

  • Volume—backup volume name.  One of the following designations may appear at the end of the volume name:

    • (A)—indicates an archive volume.

    • (R)—indicates a read-only volume.

  • Bar code—bar code label, if present.

  • Pool—name of the pool to which the backup volume belongs.

  • Written—amount of data written on the volume.

  • %Used—percentage of the estimated total capacity of the backup volume used.  When 100% appears in the %Used column, the volume has met or exceeded its expected capacity.  However, space may still be available because the end of tape mark has not been reached.

    The %Used column displays full when there is no more space on the backup volume for additional data and the end of tape mark has been reached.  If the save sets on the volume have not yet passed the time period specified by their browse and retention policies, the Mode column is blank.  If the save sets have passed their browse and retention policies, recyc appears in the Mode column, indicating the volume is available for recycling.

  • Mode—status or kind of backup volume.

    • appen—(appendable) there is room for more data on the backup volume. 

    • recyc—(recyclable) all save sets on the volume have passed the browse and retention policies, and the volume is ready to be relabeled.  Once the volume has been relabeled, it can be overwritten with new data.

    • man—(manual recycle) both the volume and its save sets are marked for manual recycling.  If the appen or recyc modes are already assigned to the volume, the man mode is displayed as an additional mode.

    • The following volume mode indicator may appear next to the volume name in the Volume column:

    • (R)—volume has a mode of “read only” assigned manually with the Change Mode command.  When the mode is manually changed to read only, the previously assigned mode is removed and the Mode column is blank for the volume.

    • See “Changing the Mode of a Backup Volume” for information on manually changing the mode of a volume.

  • Location—location of the backup volume, entered by the user as a reminder.

Note: When you back up to volumes marked appen (appendable), you are adding more data to the volume, not overwriting it.  Therefore, you can leave volumes marked appen in the server backup device to receive more backed-up data.  When a backup volume becomes full, it is marked full and NetWorker requests that the operator or autochanger mount another volume until the backup is complete.

Save Sets Scrolling List

In the Volume Management window, use the Save Sets scrolling list, shown in Figure 4-6, to view the save sets stored on a volume.

Figure 4-6. Volume Save Sets List

Figure 4-6 Volume Save Sets List

The Save Sets scrolling list provides the following information about each save set stored on the currently-selected volume:

  • Client—name of the machine that created the save set.

  • Date—date the save set was created.

  • Level—level of backup that generated the save set.  Backup levels apply only to scheduled backups.  If a Level is not displayed for a save set, the save set was generated by a manual backup.

  • Status—type of save set:

    • brows—(browsable) indicates a file index entry exists for the save set.  Files in a save set marked brows have not passed the time period specified by the client browse policy.  These files can be browsed and marked for recovery in the NetWorker Recover window. 

    • recov—(recoverable) indicates that the save set entry has been removed from the file index.  The entry could have been removed automatically due to the browse policy for the client, or manually by clicking the Remove oldest cycle button in the Indexes window.  If you need to recover the data, use the Save Set Recover window.  If you want to recover both the data and the file index entries, use the scanner command.  See the scanner(1M) reference page for information on using this command.

    • recyc—(recyclable) indicates that the save set has passed both the Browse and Retention policies time periods and is available for relabeling.  The volume must be relabeled before you attempt to overwrite it with new backups.

    • scann—(scanned-in) indicates that the save set was scanned in using the scanner command.  Standard NetWorker index management policies do not apply to scanned data.  You must remove these save sets manually from the index.  See “Navigating the Indexes Window” for instructions on manually removing save sets from the index.

    • inpro—(in-progress) indicates the save set is in the process of being backed up.

    • abort—(aborted) indicates that the backup was aborted manually by the administrator or that the system crashed.

    • susp—(suspect) indicates that a previous recovery attempt failed.  In this case, the susp status is displayed in addition to one of the previously described index status types.

  • Save Set—path of the filesystem contained in the save set.  The save set column also includes clone information.  If the save set has a clone, it is marked has clones and the cloned save set is marked cloned date time.

Manually Managing Backup Volumes

Use the Volumes window to manually perform the following volume management tasks:

  • change the status of a volume

  • set a location for a volume

  • change the mode of a volume

  • mark entire backup volumes and their save sets as recyclable

  • remove a volume from the media index

Changing the Status of a Save Set

NetWorker automatically marks the backup volume status as “suspect” and displays susp in the Volumes window if an error occurred while trying to read the media.  If NetWorker does not encounter media read errors, the volume status remains “normal.”

If you know that data in a save set is really not suspect, you may want to manually change the status of the save set from Suspect to Normal.  For example, if the drive heads were dirty when NetWorker tried to read the data, the data itself is still reliable.

To manually change the status of a save set, follow these steps:

  1. Select the save set from the Save Sets scrolling list in the Volumes window.

  2. Use the Change Status choice in the Save Set menu of the Volumes window to manually change the status of the save set, as shown in Figure 4-7.

    Figure 4-7. Save Set Change Status Menu

    Figure 4-7 Save Set Change Status Menu

If you want to undo changes made manually to the status of a save set, you can use the Change Status command to return the save set status to its former setting.

Setting the Location for Backup Volumes

You can add a location to backup volumes as a reminder of where the volume is currently stored.  This helps you find a volume when it is needed for recovering a file.  Volume locations might include a vault, shelf, autochanger job pack, or any place you physically store backup media.

To set the location for a backup volume, follow these steps:

  1. Highlight a backup volume in the Volumes scrolling list.

  2. Choose Set Location from the Volume menu.  The Set Location dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 4-8.

    Figure 4-8. Set Location Dialog Box

    Figure 4-8 Set Location Dialog Box

  3. Enter the location of the backup volume.  You may want to specify the location of backup volumes stored on a shelf or volumes stored offsite.

  4. Click the Ok button to designate the location for the selected backup volume.  The Volumes window now reflects the location for that backup volume.

After you apply a location to a volume, that location is added to the scrolling list in the Set Location dialog box and can be applied to any volume listed in the Volumes window.

If you move backup volumes from one autochanger to another, inventory them so NetWorker can recognize them and update their location with the name of the new autochanger.  If you move volumes offsite, manually assign them the location of the offsite facility before removing them from the autochanger.

Tip: When NetWorker requests that you mount a backup volume during recovery, you can find the volume by referring to its location in the Volumes window.

Changing the Mode of a Backup Volume

The mode of a backup volume determines whether NetWorker can write data to it during a backup.  See “Volumes Scrolling List” for a description of volume modes.  NetWorker automatically assigns the appen and recyc modes.  This section provides a detailed description of how to change volume mode manually.

The Volume menu in the Volumes window contains the Change Mode choice, which allows you to change the mode of a currently selected volume to appendable, read-only, or recyclable, as shown in Figure 4-9.

Figure 4-9. Volume Change Mode Menu

Figure 4-9 Volume Change Mode Menu

Table 4-1 provides a guide to existing volume modes that you can change manually.

Table 4-1. Changing Volume Modes Manually

Mode of
Current Volume

Change to

Change to
Read Only?

Change to


yes [a]







[a] You can mark these volumes appendable, but NetWorker may not be able to write data to them for a variety of reasons.

When the %Used is full or the mode of a volume is read only, NetWorker cannot write data to that volume.  NetWorker automatically indicates a %Used of full when a volume is filled with data.  An administrator manually assigns a status of read only to a volume so data cannot be written to it, whether it is full or not.

Note: If the status of all of the save sets is recyc, NetWorker automatically marks the volume as recyclable.

To change the mode of a volume, follow these steps:

  1. Click the Volumes speedbar button or choose Volumes from the Media menu.

  2. Highlight the volume in the Volumes scrolling list.

  3. Choose Change Mode from the Volume menu in the Volumes window.

  4. Drag and release on a mode from the Change Mode choices:  Appendable, Read Only, or Recyclable. A confirmation box appears asking if you want to change the volume to the mode you have chosen, as shown in Figure 4-10.

    Figure 4-10. Notice to Change Volume Mode

    Figure 4-10 Notice to Change Volume Mode

  5. Click the Ok button if you want to change the mode of the selected volume.  Notice the mode of the volume changes in the Volumes scrolling list.  Click Cancel to leave the mode unchanged.

The previously assigned mode is removed and the new volume mode is indicated next to the volume name in the Volumes display.

Caution: Do not manually change the mode of a volume to recyclable if you still need any of the save sets on the volume and do not have a cloned volume.  This could lead to loss of data.

If a cloned volume does not exist when you manually change the mode of a volume to recyclable, all of the save sets on the volume change to a status of recyclable, regardless of the save set browse or retention policies.  If a cloned volume exists, the Status of the save sets remains unchanged.  Original backup volumes and cloned volumes share the same set of save set entries.  As long as one of the volumes exist, NetWorker does not remove save set entries, since they are still needed for the remaining volume.

Recycling Volumes

You can override the volume retention policy by changing it to manual recycle.  Choose Recycle from the Volume menu; the Manual and Auto choices appear to the right, as shown in Figure 4-11.

Figure 4-11. Volume Recycle Menu

Figure 4-11 Volume Recycle Menu

You may want to change to manual recycle if you need to keep the save sets on a volume longer than its retention policy specifies.  You can change a volume marked manual recycle back to automatic recycle, reverting to the original retention policy.

To change a backup volume to manual recycle, follow these steps:

  1. Select a volume from the Volumes scrolling list.

  2. Choose Recycle from the Volume menu in the Volumes window; the Manual and Auto subchoices appear.

  3. Choose Manual from the Recycle menu.

    NetWorker notes the volume by displaying man (manual) as the volume mode in the Volumes scrolling list of the Volume Management window.

If you want to remove manual recycle from the volume, simply highlight the volume again and choose Auto from the Recycle menu.

Removing a Backup Volume

To remove a volume from the media index, choose Remove from the Volume menu in the Volumes window, as shown in Figure 4-12.

Typically, you never remove a backup volume from the media index unless the volume has become physically damaged or unusable.

Figure 4-12. Volume Remove Menu

Figure 4-12 Volume Remove Menu

When you select a volume for removal, NetWorker checks to see if the volume has a clone.  If so, NetWorker does not remove the entries from the online file index.  If not, NetWorker removes the entries from the online file index.

Tip: If a backup volume is lost or destroyed, remove its entries from both the file and media indexes.  Otherwise, NetWorker may request the nonexistent volume for data recovery.

To remove a volume from the media index, use the following steps:

  1. Highlight the volume in the Volumes scrolling list.  The volume save sets appear in the Save Sets scrolling list.

  2. Choose Remove from the Volume menu.  The notice “Remove volume name from the media index?” appears, as shown in Figure 4-13.

    Figure 4-13. Notice to Remove Volume

    Figure 4-13 Notice to Remove Volume

  3. Click the Ok button to remove the volume from the media index.

    If a removed volume does not have a clone, the save sets are also removed.

  4. Click the Cancel button if you do not want to remove the volume from the media index.

    Caution: If you accidentally delete a backup volume from the media index and have not relabeled it yet, you can still recover the data by using the scanner program.  See the scanner(1M) reference pages for more information.

Cloning Backup Volumes

NetWorker protects the data on your network by backing up files every day.  Cloning provides additional protection by allowing you to make identical copies of the data on your backup volumes as needed.

The original backup volume is the source volume, and the volume that receives the cloned data is the destination volume.  The destination volume must be different from the source volume.  NetWorker tracks cloned volumes (destination volumes) separately and marks them as clones in the media database.

You must possess all of the following before you can clone save sets onto backup media using NetWorker:

  • NetWorker with concurrent devices support (IRIX NetWorker has this)

  • multiple backup devices

  • in the Server window, the value of Active devices set to 2 or more

  • source and destination backup volumes

NetWorker also has the ability to clone individual save sets manually and automatically.  See “Cloning Save Sets” for more information.

Navigating the Clone Volume Windows

Use the Clone Volume window for cloning all of the data on a backup volume.  This window provides information about the backup volumes for the server currently in use and provides a starting point for beginning the cloning process.

To open the Clone Volume window, choose Clone Volume from the Media menu, shown in Figure 4-14.

Figure 4-14. Media Clone Volume Menu

Figure 4-14 Media Clone Volume Menu

The Clone Volume window appears, as shown in Figure 4-15.

Figure 4-15. Clone Volume Window

Figure 4-15 Clone Volume Window

The contents of the Clone Volume window are described below:

  • Volumes scrolling list—contains a list of all backup volumes known to the server.  The list includes the volume and pool name, bar code label, and the volume location.  You can clone save sets from an unlimited number of backup volumes at the same time.  Clone backup volumes after a scheduled backup has completed to avoid overloading your NetWorker server and backup devices.

  • Details button—click to view backup volume details.   The Clone Volume Details dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 4-16.

    Figure 4-16. Clone Volume Details Window

    Figure 4-16 Clone Volume Details Window

    The Clone Volume Details dialog box contains the following items:

    • volume—name of the volume.

    • capacity—size of the media.

    • used—space used on the backup volume.

    • files—number of files on the backup volume.

    • media type—kind or type of backup volume.

    • mode—mode of a backup volume is either appen (appendable), full (full), or recyc (recyclable).  See “Volumes Scrolling List” for an explanation of the different volume modes.

  • Clone button—click to open the Clone Volume Status dialog box and begin cloning selected volumes.  The Clone Volume Status dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 4-17.

    Figure 4-17. Clone Volume Status Dialog Box

    Figure 4-17 Clone Volume Status Dialog Box

    The Clone Volume Status dialog box contains the following items:

    • Volumes scrolling list—lists the volume(s) selected for cloning, the pool to which it belongs, and the volume location.

    • Clone Pool field—enter the name of the clone pool.  Cloned backup volumes must belong to a clone pool, either one you have created or one of the preconfigured clone pools.  If you do not enter a pool name, NetWorker automatically selects the Default Clone pool.

    • Status scrolling listdisplays the progress of the cloning operation.  The same messages appear in the NetWorker Administrator window.

    • Start button—click to begin cloning.

Example—Cloning Backup Volumes

In this example, the network operator needs to clone the full backups from the engineering department for offsite storage.  The operator wants only full backups from engineering cloned to the destination volumes.  Because the operator does not want to mix the cloned data, a blank destination volume must be loaded.

The source volume in this example is already mounted in one of the backup devices because a full backup has just completed.  If the source volume is not mounted when you begin cloning, you receive a message in the Pending display of the NetWorker Administrator window requesting that you load the volume.

  1. Load, label, and mount a blank destination volume in the media drive.

    Note: If you use a standalone device for NetWorker backups, a message appears in the Messages display of the NetWorker Administrator window requesting that you mount a volume.  If you use an autochanger (jukebox) for NetWorker backups and do not load, label, and mount a volume, NetWorker selects an “appendable” volume from the clone pool entered in the Clone Status window.

  2. Open the Clone Volume window by choosing Clone Volume from the Media menu.

  3. Select the volumes containing full backups for the engineering department from the Volumes scrolling list.

  4. Click the Clone button in the Clone Volume window to open the Clone Volume Status window.

  5. Enter the name of the clone pool in the Clone Pool field. 

  6. Click the Start button in the Clone Volume Status window to begin the cloning process.

The Status scrolling list displays messages showing the progress of the clone operation.

Understanding the Volume Cloning Feature

Cloning backup volumes is useful for several purposes, including:  sending data offsite, replacing old volumes, and testing the integrity of your data.

Most media has a limited shelf life.  Consequently, you need to routinely replace your backup volumes.  If you have old backup volumes that contain important data, clone them before they expire to continue to ensure the safety of the data.

Cloning also helps you determine the integrity of backed-up data.  NetWorker displays an error message if it has difficulty reading data from the original backup volume during the cloning process.

When you clone backup volumes, you are actually copying all of the save sets that have been backed up to that volume;  you are not creating an identical copy of the backup volume.  Consider cloning your backup volumes after a scheduled backup has completed, so you do not overload your NetWorker resources and backup devices.

Creating clones of your media provides the ability to store copies of your data (save sets) offsite or in a vault for protection.  Cloning backup volumes also allows you to share or transfer important data to other company facilities.

Note: Cloned media does not contain the file or media indexes used for recovering data.  Since an offsite facility using NetWorker will not have these indexes, they must use the scanner command to recover the cloned data.  For complete information about this command, see the scanner(1M) reference page.

Backup volumes can only be cloned manually.  To clone selected data (save sets) automatically, use the Groups window to enable cloning for individual groups.

NetWorker may request more than one source volume to complete the cloning operation.  This is because you are cloning the save sets, which may span multiple backup volumes.  Furthermore, because media varies in size and capacity, you may need more destination volumes to hold the cloned data than the source volumes required.

NetWorker automatically selects the next available volume marked “appendable” from the clone pool for cloning if you have an autochanger.  If you do not want to mix newer cloned data with existing cloned data, you must load, label, and mount a different volume in the backup device before starting the cloning process.

Entering Index Entries for Cloned Data

During a backup, NetWorker adds entries to both the media and file indexes after it sends data to the backup device.  File index entries represent saved client files (save sets).

By contrast, during the cloning process, NetWorker copies data from one backup volume to another and creates entries for the cloned backup volume and its save sets in the media index only.  During the cloning process, NetWorker does not back up client files, so no new client save sets are created or entered in the file index.

Both original and cloned volumes share the same file index entries since the data is identical on both volumes.  When only one entry remains in the media index for a backup volume (cloned or original) you can manually remove file index entries for save sets that have passed their browse policy, or NetWorker can automatically remove the save sets according to their browse policy.

To see the save sets contained on a backup volume, select the volume in the Volumes scrolling list.  The Save Sets scrolling list displays all the save sets contained on the currently-selected volume.  If the save sets have been cloned, you see has clones next to the save set name.  If the save set is a clone, you see cloned next to the save set name.

For more information about cloning data see “Understanding the Cloning Save Sets Feature”.

NetWorker indicates whether the save sets on backup volumes are cloned or if they have clones.  However, NetWorker does not give any indication in the Volumes scrolling list whether or not a backup volume is an original or a clone.  In other words, NetWorker does not distinguish whether the backup volumes are clones or originals, but it does distinguish if the save sets on the backup volumes are clones or have been cloned.

Tip: To distinguish between cloned and original backup volumes, assign the cloned volume to a clone pool and include the term “clone” in the label template.  NetWorker provides the following preconfigured clone pools and associated label templates:  Archive Clone, Default Clone, Migration Clone, and PC Archive Clone.

Recovering from Cloned Volumes

Cloned volumes provide added security by creating another source for recovering your data in case the original backup volumes become damaged or destroyed.  By storing your cloned volumes offsite in a secure location, you maintain a reliable source for recovering lost or damaged data.

NetWorker makes no distinction between original (source) and cloned (destination) volumes.  NetWorker chooses the first volume with reliable data for recovery.  Consequently, if a cloned volume is already mounted in the drive, NetWorker uses it for recovering data, instead of searching for the original source volume.  NetWorker finds the volume containing the data it needs and checks to see if the data has been marked suspect, regardless of whether or not it is a cloned or original volume.

NetWorker considers volumes for recovery in the following order:

  1. A volume mounted in the drive.

  2. A volume stored in an autochanger.

  3. A volume stored someplace other than in an autochanger.

Using Volume Pools

This section describes the volume pools feature, preconfigured pools, and how to create new pools.  It also provides several useful examples.

Volume pools allow you to sort your data to selected backup volumes.  A volume pool contains a collection of backup volumes that receive specific data sorted during backup.  All NetWorker volumes belong to a pool, either preconfigured or one you create.

Cloned backup volumes must belong to a clone pool, just as archived volumes belong to an archive pool.  For information on archiving, see Chapter 9, “Archive Application.”

Sort data to a pool by selecting the type of backup data you want included in that pool.  NetWorker uses the choices you make in the Pools window to sort backed-up data to specific backup volumes.

You can create as many pools as you need to effectively organize and sort your backup volumes.  There is no limit on the number of new pools you can create.

NetWorker provides the following preconfigured pools for your immediate use:  Archive, Archive Clone, Default, Default Clone, Full, NonFull, Migration, Migration Clone, PC Archive, PC Archive Clone, and Offsite.  These and any you create fall into the following “pool type” categories:  Backup, Backup Clone, Archive, Archive Clone, Migration, and Migration Clone.

For information about the preconfigured pools provided by NetWorker, see the section “Preconfigured Pools”.

All NetWorker pools require a label template, described in the section “Using Label Templates With Volume Pools”.  Before creating a new pool, create a label template with the same name.  We strongly recommend that you keep the pool names and their corresponding label templates consistent.  If you do not use the exact name, try to choose names that have a logical connection.

Tip: For each pool, you must select at least one of the following choices:  a group, client, save set, or level.  A pool cannot be created without at least one of these.

For example, you can sort data by the following categories:

  • by backup group

  • by NetWorker client

  • by save sets (filesystems)

  • by backup levels—fulls, levels 1- 9, incremental, or manual

You can further manage backed-up data by one of these methods:

  • specifying a special label template

  • sending all the backup data to a particular backup device

  • choosing whether to store the index entries in the file index

Navigating the Pools Window

To open the Pools window, choose Pools from the Media menu, shown in Figure 4-18.

Figure 4-18. Media Pools Menu

Figure 4-18 Media Pools Menu

The Pools window appears, as shown in Figure 4-19.

Figure 4-19. Pools Window

Figure 4-19 Pools Window

Use the scroll bar or resize the window to view the entire Pools window.  The Pools window contains choices required for sorting client data to selected backup volumes.

You must make selections for at least one of the following choices:  Groups, Clients, Save sets, or Levels.  NetWorker does not sort data for Pools choices left unselected.  For example, if you do not choose a level from the Levels choices, NetWorker includes all levels of backups for that pool.  NetWorker sorts data based on the other selections you have made for that pool.

Tip: You cannot create pools that share identical settings for Pool type, Groups, Clients, or Save Sets.  If any of these settings for a new pool match an existing pool, you receive a warning notice similar to that shown in Figure 4-20.

Figure 4-20. Notice About Pool Overlap

Figure 4-20 Notice About Pool Overlap

Below is an explanation of each of the elements in the Pools window and how to use them for modifying and creating custom pools:

  • Pools scrolling list—displays all of the available pools (preconfigured pools and pools you have created).

  • Create button—click to add a new pool.

  • Delete button—click to eliminate a pool from the Pools scrolling list.  You cannot delete a pool as long as it still contains backup volumes; you must first remove all of the backup volumes that belong to the pool by using the Volumes window.

    Note: You cannot delete or modify any of NetWorker's preconfigured pools.

  • Name field—displays the name of the currently-selected pool and serves as the field for entering the name of a new pool.

  • Enabled choices—enables and disables the pool.  The preconfigured choice is Yes.  If you want NetWorker to use a pool during the backup process, select Yes.  If you want to exclude a pool during the backup process, select No.

    Note: With the exception of the Full, NonFull, and Offsite pools, NetWorker's preconfigured pools are already enabled.

  • Pool type choices—select the appropriate type of pool for your backup volumes.  You may select a preconfigured pool.

  • Label template choices—select a label template, either a preconfigured label template or one created in the Label Templates window.  Silicon Graphics highly recommends using the same name for both the label template and the pool.

  • Groups choices—choose the groups you want included in the pool.  The groups displayed represent all of the groups known to the NetWorker server.  There is no limit on how many groups you can include in a pool.  You can also select individual clients for a volume pool without selecting a group.  If you do not make a selection from the Groups choices, NetWorker does not sort data based on a group.

  • Clients field—entering a client name in this field is optional.  You may want to enter the name of a NetWorker client for these reasons:

    • To add one or more clients to a pool without selecting a group.

    • To pick a specific client belonging to a group.  If you pick a specific NetWorker client from a group, you exclude all the other clients from that group.  If you select a group, the client you select must belong to that group.

  • Save sets field—entering a save set in this field is optional.  You may want to enter the name of a client save set for these reasons:

  • Levels choices—select the backup level(s) to associate with the media pool.  For example, if you click full, the pool will include only full backups for the groups assigned to the pool.  See “Selecting the Backup Levels” for more information on backup levels.

  • Devices choices—displays the devices recognized by NetWorker.  This is where you indicate which device to use for the selected pool.  For example, you might want one pool for optical discs and one for tapes, if you have both backup devices on the same server.  If you do not choose a device, NetWorker uses any available device.

  • Store file index entries choices—allows you to choose, with Yes and No choices, whether or not you want to include the index entries from the backup in the online index.  If you choose No, the index entries will not be included in the file index.  However, an entry for the save set is still made in the media database.  If you are using the preconfigured pool Offsite, you may not want the index entries online.

    You must select No for the Archive, Archive Clone, Default Clone and PC Clone pools.  You must select Yes for the Migration and Migration Clone pools.

    Tip: If you select No for Store file index entries, you will not have online file index entries available for browsing in the NetWorker Recover window.  To recover data without file index entries, you must use either the Save Set Recover window or the scanner command.  All parts of the save set must be intact in order for scanner to recover the data.  See the scanner(1M) reference page for more information.

  • Auto media verify choices—click Yes to enable automatic verification of your backup media.  NetWorker compares a record near the end of the tape with the data stored on disk.  If NetWorker detects a discrepancy, the backup terminates and the status of the offending volume is marked as full.

    The savegroup completion message indicates whether or not media errors occurred during the backup.

  • Apply button—click to apply all the selections you have chosen for a particular pool.

  • Reset button—click to restore your original selections and override any new selections you may have chosen.

Use the Pools window to choose the preconfigured pools, create new pools, and change existing pools.


This section contains step-by-step instructions for creating a new pool and several suggestions for why you would want to create your own volume pools.  If you are already familiar with the Pools feature, skip to the shortcut directions on page 99.

Example 1—Creating a New Pool

Suppose you want to create a pool named “Test” that selects all of the full backups from a group called “tech pubs.”  The technical publications group backs up all of the data from the systems in the quality assurance lab.  You want to sort the full backups so you can have a complete set of data on your backup volumes to store in a secured vault.  You do not expect that you will need to recover this data, but plan to keep it for a year.

First, create a matching label template, following these steps:

  1. Open the Label Templates window by choosing Label Templates from the Customize menu.  See the section “Using Label Templates” for complete instructions to create a label template.

    After you create the Test label template, the Label Templates window looks similar to the image in Figure 4-21.

    Figure 4-21. Label Templates Window (Test)

    Figure 4-21 Label Templates Window (Test)

    After creating the label template, open the Pools window and create a “Test” pool.

  2. Click the Create button and enter “Test” in the Name field.

    Note: You cannot create a new pool if NetWorker is busy doing a backup—this ensures that NetWorker sends the backup data to the correct pool.

  3. Select Yes from the Enabled choices.  Select Backup from the Pool type choices.  Select the label template Test, which you previously created.  Select the group tech pubs, since it contains clients you want to include in the Test pool.

  4. Do not enter anything in the Clients or Save sets fields, since you do not need to selectively include any clients or save sets.

  5. Select full from the Levels choices.

  6. Select a backup device from the Devices choices.

  7. Select Yes from the Store index entries choices.  Select No from the Auto media verify choices.

  8. Click the Apply button to apply the selections.  After you create the pool Test, the Pools window looks similar to the image in Figure 4-22.

    Figure 4-22. Pools Window (Test)

    Figure 4-22 Pools Window (Test)

Once you create a new pool, you can easily modify it by choosing the pool from the Pools scrolling list and changing the current selections.  When you are done making the modifications, click the Apply button.  If you change your mind and do not want to implement the new selections, click the Reset button to restore the Pools window to its original settings.

Example 2—Separate Departments

Your company needs to track department resources for accounting requirements, including the related backup cost for each department.  To sort data for each department, create a separate pool for each one.  Sorting the data into different pools for each department makes it easy for the Accounting department to determine the backup resources required.  These requirements include the number of backup volumes, number of backup devices, and the amount of time necessary for administering each department`s backup needs.

To create a pool for each department, create label templates with the name of each department in the Label Templates window.  Use the Pools window to create pools with the same names as the label templates, then select the groups for each department.

Example 3—Secure Device

You have confidential company information that needs to be backed up to a secure device in an area that only authorized personnel can access.  You do not want to include an entire group, so just a select set of files in a pool named “Confidential.”

To create the “Confidential” pool, create a label template and a pool with the name “Confidential.”  Enter the name of each client in the Clients field, then enter the filesystems for each of the clients in the Save sets field.  Finally, select the device that will back up the data from the Devices choices.

Example 4—Targeted Backups

Your company creates large multi-gigabyte graphic files that require multiple volumes to complete a full backup.  You want to back up these files to the autochanger on your network, so you do not need to manually load new backup volumes as they fill with data.

First, create a label template named “Graphics Full,” create a new pool by the same name, choose the group(s), select full from the Levels choices, and choose the autochanger device from the Devices list.  The graphic files will automatically back up to the autochanger.

Example 5—Specific Filesystem

Your company requires that you save electronic mail for all employees.  To keep the e-mail files separate from the rest of the backups, create a pool named “E-mail.”

First, create a label template named “E-mail,” then create a pool with the same name.  You do not need to select a specific group or client because you will back up electronic mail for all clients.  Enter the following in the Save sets field:


NetWorker will back up all the electronic mail from all clients to the volumes in the “E-mail” pool.


Use this section if you have reviewed the examples or if you are an experienced NetWorker user.

To create a volume pool, follow these steps:

  1. Create a label template using the Label Templates window.

  2. Open the Pools window by choosing Pools from the Media menu.

  3. Click the Create button and enter the name of the new pool into the Name field.  (We recommend matching the name used for the label template.)

  4. Select Yes from the Enabled choices.

  5. Select the appropriate pool type from the Pool type choices.

  6. Choose the matching label template.

  7. Make a selection for at least one of the following choices:  a group, client, save set, or level. You must make one selection from among these choices or NetWorker will be unable to sort data for the pool.

  8. Make the remainder of your choices for Levels, Devices, and Store index entries.

  9. Click the Apply button to apply the selections.

Caution: NetWorker does not allow you to create two different pools with duplicate choices for Groups, Clients, Save sets, and Levels.  If you try to create two pools with the same choices for all of these items, NetWorker displays an error message.

Deleting a Volume Pool

To delete a pool, follow these steps:

  1. Choose Pools from the Media menu to open the Pools dialog box.

  2. Select the pool you want to delete in the Pools list box.

  3. Click the Delete button.  The pool disappears from the Pools list box in the Pools dialog box.

Tip: Give careful consideration to the pools you create.  Once you create a pool, you cannot rename it or delete it, as long as it contains backup volumes.

Understanding Volume Pools

NetWorker is designed to back up clients in a group according to a schedule.  Data from several clients are mixed together on backup volumes for optimal media usage.  NetWorker tracks backed-up data for each client and all the volumes to which their data is backed up.

By contrast, volume pools establish a logical and systematic method for tracking, organizing, and sorting your data and backup volumes.  For example, you may want to create a separate pool for each department in your company or a pool that contains only files with confidential information.  Or you may want to assign all of your full backups to a particular pool so you can easily store them offsite.  Volume pools allow you to select and sort specific files or data to preselected backup volumes.

You cannot delete a volume pool if any backup volumes still belong to that pool.  If you want to delete a pool, you must first remove all of the backup volumes from the media database.

Using Label Templates With Volume Pools

Each pool has an accompanying label template, which you create in the Label Templates window before creating the pool.  Use the same name for both your label template and volume pool to help track the backups and the pools or tapes to which they belong.  If you do not select a label template in the Pools window while creating a pool, NetWorker automatically uses the pool name and creates a template for you.  You have more control over the label templates design and content if you create them yourself.

Adding and Deleting Backup Devices

To perform backups, you must enter at least one device pathname for a backup device.  IRIX NetWorker supports multiple devices, either concurrently as separate standalone drives, or concurrently in an autochanger (with optional jukebox support).  Low-end versions of NetWorker support two drives in a series: NetWorker backs up to a volume in the first drive until full, and then backs up to a volume in the other drive.

Use concurrent devices to spread your backups evenly across many devices (up to 16 drives are supported).  For unattended backups using a jukebox, purchase the optional Autochanger Software Module.

Note: Depending upon which NetWorker product you purchased, your server may have a limit on the maximum number of devices it supports.

NetWorker supports the following types of backup devices and their corresponding backup media:

  • DLT 2000, DLT 4000, and DLT 7000 tape drives

  • half-inch magnetic tape drives

  • quarter-inch cartridge tape drives

  • 4 mm (DAT) drives

  • 8 mm tape drives and 8 mm 5 GB tape drives

  • 3480 tape drives

  • VHS tape drives

  • optical disc drives

Navigating the Devices Window

When you first install the NetWorker software, NetWorker automatically configures the SCSI devices for the backup device choices you make.  If, after installing NetWorker, you decide you need to add, delete, or modify your NetWorker backup devices, begin by using the Devices dialog box.

Use the Devices window to view current devices or to add a new device.  To open this window, choose Devices from the Media menu.  The Devices window appears, as shown in Figure 4-23.

Figure 4-23. Devices Window

Figure 4-23 Devices Window

The Devices window contains the following items:

  • Devices scrolling list—displays device pathnames of the backup devices connected to the NetWorker server:  either standalone devices or devices located inside of an autochanger.  Use these devices to back up and recover client files.

  • Name field—displays the pathname of the currently selected device and accepts a pathname for a new device.

  • Media type scrolling listdisplays the media type of the currently selected device.  You also use the Media type choices to select the type of media for new devices.

    Tip: You cannot change media type—you must delete and re-create the device.

    Your choices are: half-inch magnetic tape (himt), quarter-inch cartridge tape (qic), four millimeter tape (4mm), eight millimeter tape (8mm), eight millimeter tape with five gigabyte capacity (8mm 5GB), 3480 tape (3480), 3590 tape (3590), digital linear tape (dlt), digital linear tape with 20 gigabyte capacity (dlt 20GB), DLT tape with large block size (dlt7000), VHS tape (vhs), and optical disc drives (optical).

    The media types displayed in the Devices window vary, depending upon the type of backup devices NetWorker currently supports.

  • Enabled choices—select Yes to enable a backup device and No to disable it.  NetWorker automatically enables newly added devices.  If your backup device is not functioning, select No so that NetWorker does not attempt to use the device for backups.  When you disable a backup device, it is listed as disabled in the Devices display of the NetWorker Administrator window.

    Note: You cannot disable or delete a backup device while a volume is mounted in it.

  • Cleaning required choices—automatically set to Yes when NetWorker determines that an autochanger device needs to be cleaned and set to No after the device has been cleaned.

    A user schedules future cleaning of a device by setting this attribute to Yes.  When the value of Cleaning required changes from Yes to No, the value of Date last cleaned is automatically set to the current date and time.  If required, you can manually enter a value for Date last cleaned.

  • Cleaning interval fieldspecified number of days, weeks, or months between the Date last cleaned and the next scheduled cleaning of the device.

    This field accepts any combination of numbers and time periods, with or without a space between: 2day, 2 days; 3week, 3 weeks; 6month, 6 months; and so on.

    NetWorker keeps track of the time elapsed since the last cleaning and determines when cleaning is required.  A blank value in this field disables the automatic cleaning function.

  • Date last cleaned field—records the date a device was last cleaned and is updated whenever a device is cleaned.

  • Auto media management fieldgives NetWorker exclusive control over media loaded in the backup device.  If you select Yes, NetWorker automatically labels, mounts, and overwrites a volume it considers unlabeled.  If you select No, NetWorker ignores the media and does not consider it for backup.

    Note: If the device is in a jukebox, you can enable only the Auto media management feature in the Jukeboxes window.  See “Using the Auto Media Management Feature” in this chapter for more information.

Adding a New Backup Device

You must provide the following information to add a new backup device:

  • the pathname of the device

    The pathname for storage devices varies depending upon the system vendor.  For example, on IRIX servers the pathname for a no-rewind tape device is something like /dev/rmt/tps0d3nr, where 0 indicates the controller and 3 the SCSI address.

  • the media type of the device

    Caution: A no-rewind backup device is required (for tape drives) because NetWorker writes a file mark on the backup volume at the end of each backup and then appends data onto the volume based on the position of the file mark.  If the device rewinds the media, the file mark position is lost and previously written data is overwritten by the next backup.

To add a new backup device to the server, follow these steps:

  1. Choose Devices from the Media menu.

  2. Click the Create button.

  3. Enter a new device pathname into the Name field.

  4. Select the appropriate media type for the device from the Media type choices.

  5. Click the Apply button.

Any additions you make appear in the Devices window.

Deleting a Backup Device

To delete a backup device from the server, follow these steps:

  1. Select the device you want to delete in the Devices scrolling list.

  2. Click the Delete button.  An “ok to delete?” confirmation box appears.

  3. Click Ok to delete the device.

Using the Auto Media Management Feature

Auto media management further automates the backup procedure by freeing the administrator from the task of premounting and labeling a volume before backup.  When
Auto media management is enabled in the Devices dialog box, NetWorker assumes that the backup volume loaded in the device is handled exclusively as NetWorker media.

Backup volumes that appear unlabeled are considered blank and are automatically labeled, mounted, and overwritten with new data. 

NetWorker does not recognize the following media types, and considers them to be unlabeled volumes:

  • volumes without a label

  • volumes labeled with something other than a NetWorker label

  • volumes with NetWorker labels that were written in a density different than the device in which it is currently loaded.  For example, if you performed NetWorker backups on an older 8mm tape drive, a newer 8mm tape drive may not be able to read the volumes from the older device because a different density was used to write the data.

    Caution: If your backup devices have different density capabilities, be cautious when sharing NetWorker volumes between devices when Auto media management is enabled.  You could potentially relabel and overwrite valuable data.

The Auto media management feature is located in both Jukeboxes and Devices windows.  For autochangers (jukeboxes), you only need to enable Auto media management in the Jukeboxes window.  If you attempt to enable Auto media management for an autochanger device in the Devices window, NetWorker displays a warning similar to the following.

Figure 4-24. Notice About Auto Media Management

Figure 4-24 Notice About Auto Media Management

Note: For more information on managing media automatically with autochangers see Chapter 7, “Autochanger Software Module.”