Glossary

account

A name for a NQS user and associated privileges. On UNICOS systems, account can also refer to an additional user identification mechanism you must supply when you use the cqsub -A or qsub -A command.

batch cluster

A group of interworking NQS/NQE systems with their associated environments. Each batch cluster is a separate administrative domain with separate security, status, and policies.

batch job

A file of commands to be executed in batch mode. See request.

batch queue

An NQS queue in which requests are executed by the UNIX system. See queue.

batch request

A file that contains a shell script to be processed either by the batch facility (NQS) or cron (the UNICOS batch command also uses cron).

cluster

A group of computer systems networked together to provide increased throughput, data availability, and automatic workload distribution.

domain

The part of a larger computing resource allocated for the sole use of a specific user or group of users. In a hierarchy, it is a named group that has control over all groups under it, some of which may be domains themselves. A domain is referenced through a construct called domain addressing. In FTA, domain is a concept that identifies a particular file transfer service provided by a network protocol (for example, OSI, DAP, and TCP/IP). In OSI, a domain is a network that includes smaller networks, such as local area networks, within it. An example of a domain might be a campus network or a large corporate network.

execution priority

Priority type that determines how much priority is given a particular executing request in relation to all other work on the Network Queuing System (NQS) server.

exit events

Unique events for tracking NQS requests.

file

(1) In UNICOS terminology, the major unit of data storage and retrieval in the operating system, consisting of a collection of data in one of several prescribed arrangements and described by control information to which the system has access. It is a set of related records that are treated as a unit; an object that can be written to, or read from, or both. In Cray Research blocked format, a file is terminated by a record control word with 168 in the mode field.

A file has certain attributes, including access permissions and type. File types include regular file, character special file, block special file, FIFO special file, and directory. A file is always identified by an inode, and it has one or more links in the file system that serve as the terminating names in paths to the file. A file must have at least one link; otherwise, it has no name and does not exist (the system deallocates an inode with zero links).

file transfer request

An object that contains information that describes the file transfer operations that FTA will perform on behalf of a user.

file transfer service

A UNICOS utility that performs file transfer operations for a particular domain.

global limits

Limits that restrict the total workload executing concurrently under control of one NQS system.

host

An individual computer on a network; this is a domain name server host name look up command. For more information, see the hosts(1) man page.

hostname

The hostname is a command that prints the name of the current host system. The system administrator also uses the hostname command to set the name of the host system. hostname is a BSD command. The ATT equivalent command is uname. Although these two commands are not identical, the general function that they perform, obtaining the host identification for the computer on which they are run, is the same.

immediate mode

Mode in which file transfer is executed immediately after a file transfer command is typed.

job control

A means of controlling multiple shells or processes interactively.

job log file

The location to which explanatory messages for request-related events are sent.

load balancing

(1) A process that ensures that each processor involved in a job performs equal work. (2) The process of allocating work (such as Network Queuing System (NQS) batch requests to spread the work more evenly among the variable hosts in a batch cluster.

network peer-to-peer authorization

The network peer-to-peer authorization (NPPA) lets you transfer files without placing your password in job script files or transmitting passwords over the network.

pipe queue

An NQS queue used to route a request to another queue. Each pipe queue has one or more destinations, unless it is using destination selection. A destination consists of a host (local or remote) and another queue (batch or pipe). A request cannot execute until it has been routed to a batch queue. See queue.

preexecution priority

A priority that affects the queued NQS request; it determines the order in which requests are chosen to begin execution by NQS.

queue

A list of jobs (such as messages to be transmitted in a data communications system) or datasets that are waiting to be processed by the computer; the arrangements of items determines the processing priority. NQS has batch queues, pipe queues, and destination-selection queues (which are a type of pipe queue). Typically, a user submits a job to a pipe queue, which then routes the job to a suitable bath queue for execution.

queue complex

A set of local batch queues that are grouped by the NQS administrator to simplify NQS administration. Each complex has a set of associated attributes that provide for control of the total number of concurrently running requests in member queues.

queue mode

Mode in which a file transfer request is added to a queue of file transfer requests to await execution.

queue run limit

The maximum number of requests that can be executed concurrently in a queue.

remote file

The File Transfer Agent (FTA) defines a remote file as any file on a remote host.

remote host

Any host computer system, other than the local host, on a network.

request

A set of UNIX commands that has been submitted for execution in batch mode at the UNIX system.

shell script

(1) A program that provides the interface between the human operator and the operating system of a computer. (2) A file that contains commands for the shell to read and execute. Thus, you may preserve a sequence of commands for repeated use by saving them in a file. The preferred terminology is shell script rather than shell program, command procedure, command file, shell procedure, or shell code; but the terminology varies according to local preference.

signal

An electrical quantity that transfers data from one point to another. One software component notifies another component when something significant occurs (messages that inform processes of asynchronous events). A signal, associated with a specific number, is a single integer number that interrupts a process to manifest a condition; for example, SIGFPE, which is floating-point exception, request an action (such as SIGKILL(9), one of the most common signals which kills the receiving process), completion of I/O, occurrence of a channel interrupt, or request to terminate an activity. The sender of the signal must be the operating system, kernel, the administrator, or another process that has the same owner as the receiving process.

Signals influence the way the software behaves; that is, based on the type of signal received by a software component, a decision is made about which thread or path to follow through the operating system. Some signals inform the process of serious errors (exceptions). The action the process takes in response to the signal depends on the type of signal and whether the program includes a signal handler routine.

Signals are described and defined in the /usr/include/signal.h file in UNICOS, and in certain text files in the IOS-E software.

task

A job request that is submitted to the NQE database.