This section briefly describes the directories and files that a system administrator uses frequently. For additional information on the formats of the system files, refer to the IRIX section 4 man pages.
The main directories of the root filesystem (/) are as follows:
Contains hardware-specific files and files required to start the system.
Contains publicly executable commands. (Some are root-only.)
Provides a link to /proc.
Contains special files that define all of the devices on the system.
Contains administrative programs and tables.
Contains public libraries.
Used by fsck(1M) to save disconnected files and directories.
Provides an interface to running processes that may be used by debuggers such as dbx(1).
Used for temporary files.
Used to mount the /usr filesystem and for files that are the same from system to system. These files are not writable.
Used for files that are specific to each system. There is typically a symbolic link to /usr for each file in /var.
The following directories are important in the administration of your system:
Contains shell scripts used in upward and downward transitions to all system run levels. These files are linked to files beginning with S (start) or K (kill) in /etc/rcn.d, where n is replaced by the appropriate run level number.
Contains start-up and run-time configuration information.
Contains files executed by /etc/rc0 to bring the system to run-level 0. Files in this directory are linked from files in the /etc/init.d directory and begin with either a K or an S. K indicates processes that are killed, and S indicates processes that are started when entering run-level 0.
Contains files executed by /etc/rc2 for transitions to system run-level 2. Files in this directory are linked from files in the /etc/init.d directory and begin with either a K or an S. K indicates processes that should be killed, and S indicates processes that should be started, when entering run-level 2.
Contains files executed by /etc/rc3 for transitions to system run-level 3. Files in this directory are linked from files in the /etc/init.d directory and begin with either a K or an S. K indicates processes that should be stopped, and S indicates processes that should be started when entering run-level 3.
Contains information collected by the accounting subsystem.
Contains crash dumps of the system. After analysis, and if appropriate, these dumps can safely be removed unless your support provider has requested otherwise. See the savecare(1) man page for more information.
Contains information collected by sar(1). Note the %wio, %idle, wioq-sz, and %wioocc fields changed in the IRIX 6.5.13 release. For more information, see the sar(1) man page, especially the -U and -q options.
Contains the home directories of users of the system or network. This directory can be a link to /var/people or a mount point for a totally separate filesystem.
This directory contains files that are the same on all systems.
Contains spooling directories. The directories in this directory hold outbound mail, print requests, and other data.
Contains crontab files for the adm, root, and sys logins and ordinary users listed in cron.allow.
Contains files that define the configuration of hardware devices, software services and utilities, and aliases.
Contains files that define the default settings of all kernel tunable parameters.
Contains files that define the current settings of all kernel tunable parameters.
The following files are important in the administration of your system:
Contains the standard (default) environment for /bin/csh users.
Contains the list of NFS filesystems exported at boot time to NFS clients if the optional NFS software is installed.
Specifies the filesystem(s) to be mounted.
Contains information used by getty to set the speed and terminal settings for a line.
Describes each group to the system.
Contains information about the known hosts on the network.
Contains a list of hosts trusted for non-superuser rlogin and rsh execution.
Contains the instructions to define the processes created or terminated by init for each initialization state.
Displays a message to users before logging in to the system over the network or on serial lines.
Contains information describing the logical volumes used by the workstation. This file is read by the logical volumes utilities.
Contains a brief message-of-the-day.
Identifies each user to the system.
Contains the standard (default) environment for /bin/sh users.
Contains a script that executes shell scripts in /etc/rc0.d to bring the system to run-level 0.
Contains a script that executes shell scripts in /etc/rc2.d and /etc/rc.d on transitions to system run-level 2.
Contains a shell script that gracefully shuts down the system in preparation for system backup or for scheduled downtime.
Contains the system name.
Contains a list, ordered by terminal port, of what kind of terminal is likely to log in to that port.
Used to set the default time zone shell variable TZ.
Contains the information on the current runstate of the system.
Contains a history of system logins.
Contains an extended history of system logins.
Contains a history of su command usage. This file should be checked periodically for excessive size and archived.
Contains system and daemon error messages.
Contains the domain name if the workstation is using NIS.
Contains a history of all the actions taken by cron. This file should be checked periodically for excessive size and reduced if necessary.
Contains a list of users allowed to use crontab(1). This file cannot exist on the system at the same time as cron.deny.
Contains a list of users who are denied access to crontab(1). It is checked if /usr/lib/cron/cron.allow does not exist.
This section contains a listing of many of the most important device files and directories that reside in the /dev directory structure.
Directory containing block device files for disks; see the ips(7), dks(7), and xyl(7)man pages for disk partition device names.
Directory containing raw (character) device files for disks; see the ips(7), dks(7), and xyl(7) man pages for disk partition device names.
Generic root partition (block device).
Generic root partition (raw device).
Generic usr partition (block device).
Generic usr partition (raw device).
Generic swap partition (block device).
Generic swap partition (raw device).
Generic root volume header (block device).
Generic root volume header (raw device).
Directory containing block device files for tapes; see the ts(7) man page for ISI quarter-inch tape drive device names; see the tps(7) man page for SCSI quarter-inch tape drive device names; see the xmt(7) man page for Xylogics half-inch tape drive names.
Directory containing raw device files for tapes; see the ts(7) man page for ISI quarter-inch tape drive device names; see the tps(7) man page for SCSI quarter-inch tape drive device names; see the xmt(7) man page for Xylogics half-inch tape drive names.
Generic tape device; bytes are swapped in order to be backward-compatible with the IRIS Series 2000 and 3000 workstations; see the mtio(7)man page.
Generic no-rewind tape device; bytes are swapped in order to be backward-compatible with the IRIS Series 2000 and 3000 workstations; see the mtio(7)man page.
Generic tape device; bytes are not swapped; see the mtio(7)man page.
Generic no-rewind tape device; bytes are not swapped; see the mtio(7)man page.
Memory; see mem(7)man page.
Mappable memory; see the mmem(7) man page.
Kernel memory; see the kmem(7)man page.
Null device (zero length on input, data sink on output); see the null(7)man page.
Block devices used by system administration tools; see the sysadm(1M) and sa(7)man page.
Raw devices used by system administration tools; see the sysadm(1M) and sa(7)man page.
File used to create 4DDN logical links; see the dn_ll(7)man page.
File used by 4DDN network management software; see the dn_netman(7)man page.
Centronics color graphics printer device.
Tektronix color graphics printer device.
Versatec color graphics printer device.
Hard link to vers.
GPIB (IEEE-488) device; see the gpib(7)man page.
Spectragraphics coax device; see the gse(7)man page.
Parallel line printer interface; see the plp(7)man page.
File used by operating system profiler; see the prf(7)man page.
Raw device file for IBM 3270 Cluster Controller; see the t3270(7)man page.
Directory containing files used by IRIS GTX series machines hardware spinlock driver; see the usnewlock(3P)man page.
Named pipe that is read by the system logging daemon; see the syslogd(1M)man page.
Clonable pseudo-tty controller; see the clone(7) and ptc(7)man pages.
Master pseudo-teletype for the graphics console; see the pty(7)man page.
Slave pseudo-teletype for the graphics console; see the pty(7)man page.
Logical console device for the Graphics Manager on the IRIS GT and GTX model machines. Messages from the software running on the 68020 on the GM board will appear as output on this device.
Directory containing the individual logical graphics input devices.
System console device.
Hard link to /dev/console.
Hard link to /dev/console.
Graphics queue device. Graphics programs call “select” on this device in order to be notified when there is input in their graphics queue. This device cannot be actually read or written.
Device for serial port connected to dial and button box.
Device for serial port connected to keyboard.
Device for serial port connected to mouse.
Device for serial port connected to digitizing tablet.
Serial ports 1–12.
Serial ports 1–12 for devices that understand hardware flow control.
Serial ports 1–12 for modems.
Pseudo tty devices; see the pty(7)man page.
Zero device (infinite zeros on reads); see the zero(7)man page.
The ASCII character set defines a 1-to-1 mapping of characters to 8-bit values. The following tables provide an easy reference for converting the ASCII characters into their octal, hexadecimal, and decimal equivalents. These tables are also available in the ascii(5) man page.
Table D-1. ASCII Map to Octal Values
Table D-2. ASCII Map to Hexadecimal Values
Table D-3. ASCII Map to Decimal Values