This chapter provides a general overview of how to configure the terminal emulator software on your IBM compatible personal computer or Macintosh computer for use as a system console with the Internet Gateway server. It also describes the steps to start and begin to use WebFORCE Internet Gateway software.
To communicate with the Internet Gateway server through a Macintosh or PC, you need a terminal emulator. Many operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, ship with a terminal emulator package (also known as modem or communications software). Some examples of terminal emulator software include the following:
On UNIX based systems, two common utilities are cu and ct. The server owner's guide provides basic instructions for using cu on a Silicon Graphics workstation to communicate with a server. The steps are similar for other UNIX based systems. Also, see the cu(1) and ct(1) reference pages.
Table 3-1 shows the basic settings for terminal emulator software running on IBM compatible or Macintosh computers.
Table 3-1. Terminal Emulator Settings
Any of the following:
None or XON/XOFF
To configure your terminal emulator, follow these general steps:
Power on your IBM compatible or Macintosh computer.
When the system has booted, locate and start the terminal emulator.
Adjust the settings for your terminal emulator as indicated in Table 3-1.
Be sure the terminal emulator software is configured to use the serial port on your computer to which you attached the serial cable.
Note which terminal type (such as VT100 or ANSI) you choose to emulate. You will need this information when you log in to the server.
Other settings, such as upload and download protocol, initialization strings, and file transfer settings do not matter for this procedure. You can leave them set to their defaults.
Follow these steps to access the server:
Turn on the server, if you have not done so already.
Press Enter once or twice on your computer or terminal. You should see a power-on diagnostics message, followed by a menu similar to the following:
Running power-on diagnostics... System Maintenance Menu 1) Start System 2) Install Software 3) Run Diagnostics 4) Recover System 5) Enter Command Monitor
If you do not see the System Maintenance Menu, and nothing happens when you press Enter, make sure the cables are correctly attached. The 8-pin connector on the long serial cable must be in port 1 of the server.
Make sure you have configured the terminal emulator to use the correct serial port on your computer.
If you are using a character (ASCII) terminal, make sure the baud rate setting is correct (9600 baud). Also, if the terminal has more than one connector on the back, make sure you are using the correct one. It should be the connector marked “Data,” “Modem,” or something similar. Make sure the terminal is configured to use that connector.
If you see strange characters on your screen (such as xx``x`) when you press the return key, you may not have set the baud rate correctly in your terminal emulator or character terminal. It must be set to 9600 baud.
Type 1 and press Enter.
The server starts booting IRIX.
You should see messages similar to the following:
Starting up the system... IRIX Release 6.5 IP22 Version 02111257 System V Copyright 1987-1998 Silicon Graphics Inc. All Rights Reserved. System is coming up... IRIS login:
Once you see the IRIS login: prompt, you are ready to log in to the server and initialize WebFORCE Internet Gateway.
The next step in installing WebFORCE Internet Gateway is to log in to the server and run the start-gateway program, which prompts you for some information that is necessary to configure your Internet gateway.
Take a moment to fill out this checklist so that you have ready all the information needed by start-gateway. Fill in the middle column of values in Table 3-2 below.
Table 3-2. Checklist of Information Needed to Initialize the Gateway Server
Value For Your Internet Gateway Server
What It Is and Why It Is Needed
Every system on the Internet needs a name. The name can be any number or alphabetic character in the 7-bit ASCII character set, and many non-alphabetic characters. Spaces, control characters, and characters used in internet addresses (such as periods, @ signs, and exclamation points) should not be used in the hostname.
Every system on the Internet belongs to a domain. Domains can include COM for commercial servers, EDU for educational servers, ORG for non-profit servers, and geographic domains like portland.or.us (Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.) and sf.ca.us (San Francisco, California, U.S.A.) Domain names are not case-sensitive, so com is the same as com.
Your ISP may already have provided you with a domain name. If you have not yet contacted an ISP and obtained a domain name, you can pick any domain name you want for the time being, though you may have to change it later.
Internet address (or primary internet address)
This is the Internet address (also known as an IP address) of your gateway server. Your ISP provides an IP address for your server. If you have not yet obtained an IP address, you can use the default test address that is assigned to the machine when it leaves the factory.See
“Glossary” for a description of IP addresses.
Example: 192.0.2.1 (default test address)
The netmask specifies how much of the address to reserve for subdividing networks into subnetworks. The mask includes the network part of the local address and the subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the address. The mask can be specified as a single hexadecimal number with a leading 0x, with a dot-notation Internet address, or with a pseudo-network name listed in the network table networks(4). The mask contains 1's for the bit positions in the 32-bit address that are to be used for the network and subnet parts, and 0's for the host part. The mask should contain at least the standard network portion, and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion.
Follow these steps to log in to the server and initialize WebFORCE Internet Gateway:
At the IRIS login: prompt, type root and press Enter.
You see various boot-up messages followed by a login prompt similar to the following:
IRIX Release 6.5 IP22 Version 02111257 IRIS Copyright 1987-1998 Silicon Graphics, Inc. TERM = (vt100)
If you set the terminal type in your emulator software to VT100, press Enter.
If you set the terminal type in your emulator software to another type of terminal, enter the name of the terminal type (for example, vt102 or ansi) and press Enter. Be sure to use lowercase letters when entering the terminal type. Like all UNIX operating systems, IRIX is case sensitive, so VT102 is not the same as vt102.
You should now see the root shell prompt, IRIS 1#.
You can now do one of the following:
Leave your terminal emulator session running and leave the serial cables connected from your client system (system console) to the gateway server. You may wish to do this at least until you are sure the server is running and configured properly.
Quit the terminal emulator session and disconnect the serial cables between your client system (system console) and the gateway server. This is appropriate when you are sure your network and the gateway server are configured properly.
If you are using a character (ASCII) terminal, you can leave it attached to the server.
To start WebFORCE Internet Gateway, type start-gateway and press Enter. You see the following:
Welcome to your Silicon Graphics WebFORCE Internet Gateway server! There are a few simple steps to connect your server to the Internet: First, use this terminal window to configure your server to communicate with your local network by means of an IP connection. Currently, you are using a serial cable connection to communicate between your server and a terminal device (such as a VT-100 terminal or a PC-compatible, Macintosh, or Indy computer running terminal emulation software), but the serial connection will be replaced. After you configure your server using this terminal window, you will configure your server to communicate with the Internet. For this step, you will use a Web browser on your PC-compatible, Macintosh or Indy computer. Your computer will communicate with your server through an Ethernet cable. The current configuration of your server is: Hostname: IRIS Domain name: IP Address: 192.0.2.1 Netmask: 0xffffff00 You must change these factory settings to connect your server to the Internet. Most of the information that you need to make these changes is supplied by your Internet service provider (ISP). Make sure you have the appropriate information from your ISP, and follow the steps below. A hostname uniquely identifies your Silicon Graphics Internet Gateway server. By convention, hostnames contain only lowercase letters. Enter a hostname for this server: [IRIS]
Enter the hostname you wish to assign to the server at the prompt Enter a hostname for this server: [IRIS] and press Enter.
You are prompted to enter a domain name for your gateway server:
Each organization on the Internet is known by its domain name. Domain names usually contain two (or three) segments, separated by periods. Your ISP assigns domain names. (Example: aspen.com) Enter the Domainname for this server: [ ]
Type in the name of the domain in which your gateway server resides. For example: freestuff.org or acme.com and press Enter.
You are prompted for the Internet address of the gateway server:
The primary network interface connects the server to your local area network. Use an IP address that you obtained from your ISP as the IP address for the primary network interface. (Example: 126.96.36.199) Enter the IP Address of the primary network interface: [192.0.2.1]
Enter the Internet address that your ISP provided for your gateway server and press Enter.
|Note: You cannot connect to either the Internet or your LAN using the default IP address of 192.0.2.1. This is a temporary address that is used on all Silicon Graphics computers when they ship from the factory. You must change this address.|
You are prompted for the netmask of your gateway server:
The netmask is used in conjunction with the IP address. In most cases, you can use the default netmask. Enter netmask for this interface: [0xffffff00]
Enter the netmask desired and press Enter, or just press Enter to use the default netmask of 0xffffff00.
You are prompted to verify the information you just entered:
Verify Configuration. You have entered: Hostname: mymachine Domainname: acme.com IP Address: 188.8.131.52 Netmask: 0xffffff00 Is this correct? [y/n]
If the information is correct, type y and press Enter.
If you wish to start over and change any of the information, type n and press Enter. The procedure begins again from step 2.
When you are satisfied with the gateway server configuration (you enter y in the preceding step), you are prompted to reboot the server:
You now need to reboot your server to put your changes in effect. After your server reboots, complete these steps: 1. Open a Web browser on your computer 2. Open the URL “http://184.108.40.206:2077/” in the browser 3. Select “Setup Tasks” on the WebFORCE Internet Gateway Web page to continue connecting to the internet. After your server reboots, you can close this terminal window on your terminal (or personal computer) window. Reboot server now? [y|n]
To reboot the server, type y and press Enter. This not only reboots the server, but it causes the server to reconfigure itself with the new information you have provided in the preceding steps.
Once the server has rebooted, you see the following in your terminal emulator window or screen:
Instead of mymachine, you see whatever name you assigned to the gateway server.
Log in to the server again. At the prompt mymachine login: type root and press Enter.
When you see the root shell prompt, mymachine 1#, you are ready to test the network connection between the server and other machines on your LAN.
Verify that the system on which you will use your Web browser can receive network packets from the gateway server. Enter /usr/etc/ping ip_address. Replace ip_address with the IP address of the system on which you will run the Web browser. You should see output similar to the following:
PING 220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 22.214.171.124: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1 ms 64 bytes from 126.96.36.199: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=1 ms 64 bytes from 188.8.131.52: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms 64 bytes from 184.108.40.206: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255 time=1 ms 64 bytes from 220.127.116.11: icmp_seq=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
After several lines of output from ping, press Ctrl+C to interrupt the program. You should see lines similar to the following:
----18.104.22.168 PING Statistics---- 5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms
This indicates a properly-functioning connection between your gateway server and the other machine on your network.
If there is a network problem, the ping command displays only the following line:
PING 22.214.171.124 (126.96.36.199): 56 data bytes
If this happens, press Ctrl+C to interrupt the program. You see lines similar to the following:
----188.8.131.52 PING Statistics---- 5 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss
If this happens, verify that both machines are attached to the network and that the cables are connected securely. Also, try using the ping command to check the connection to other machines on the network and compare the results. If you are connecting the two machines directly (without using a hub or concentrator), make sure the cable is properly wired.
If there are no network problems, you are now finished initializing WebFORCE Internet Gateway. You are ready to finish configuring your Internet Gateway server using a Web browser.
To finish configuring WebFORCE Internet Gateway, use a Web browser (such as Netscape) on a workstation on your LAN. Access the Internet Gateway server with the Web browser, and fill out a series of forms that complete the configuration process.
Follow these steps:
Be sure the server is running.
Use the chkconfig command to turn on the Internet Gateway:
chkconfig webface on
Start the Internet Gateway Web server:
Start your Web browser (for example, Netscape) from a computer or workstation on your LAN.
You can run the Web browser from any computer or workstation that is on the same LAN as the Internet Gateway server.
For best results, use Netscape Navigator 2.0 or later. You can use other browsers, but they must support HTML frames and fill-out forms.
Open the following uniform resource locator (URL):
In this URL, server_ip_address is the IP address you assigned to the Internet Gateway server. For example:
If there is no root password, you will be required to create one. You are then prompted to enter an administrative account user ID and create a password for the administrative account.
Then you see the Internet Gateway home page shown in Figure 3-1 in your browser window.
If you do not see the screen as shown in Figure 3-1, verify that you can open other URLs on your LAN with your Web browser.
If you cannot open other URLs on your LAN, there may be a configuration problem with your browser. In particular, if your browser is capable of using proxies, make sure they are turned off. (In Netscape 4.x, proxies are set in the Edit/Preferences/Advanced menu.)
Click the Setup Tools icon shown in Figure 3-2 to finish the WebFORCE Internet Gateway configuration. You are then prompted for the administrative user ID and password that you have chosen.
On the next screen, select the icon or link for “Easy Setup of Your Internet Connection,” as shown in Figure 3-3.
You can now follow the online instructions to continue setting up your server to act as an Internet gateway. In addition, you can use this interface to easily perform many administrative tasks including:
Enable/disable inetd services
Configure and administer mailing lists with majordomo
support secure Netscape news and mail on your LAN
configure sendmail and POP3 mail protocols
integrate IRIX with networked PCs using samba
administer ftp, DNS, NIS, and other network services