## Chapter 2. Data Types and Mapping

This chapter describes how the Fortran compiler implements size and value ranges for various data types. In addition, data alignment and accessing misaligned data is also discussed.

## Alignment, Size, and Value Ranges

Table 2-1 contains information about various Fortran scalar data types. For details on the maximum sizes of arrays, see “Maximum Memory Allocations” in Chapter 1.

Table 2-1. Size, Alignment, and Value Ranges of Data Types

Type

Synonym

Size

Alignment

Value Range

BYTE

INTEGER*1

8 bits

Byte

-128...127

INTEGER*2

16 bits

Half word

-32,768...32,767

INTEGER

INTEGER*4:

When the -i2 option is used, type INTEGER is equivalent to INTEGER*2; when the -i8 option is used, INTEGER is equivalent to INTEGER*8.

32 bits

Word

-231 ... 231-1

INTEGER*8

64 bits

Double word

-263...263 -1

LOGICAL*1

8 bits

Byte

0...1

LOGICAL*2

16 bits

Half word

0...1

LOGICAL

LOGICAL*4:

When the -i2 option is used, type LOGICAL is equivalent to LOGICAL*2; when the -i8 option is used, type LOGICAL is equivalent to LOGICAL*8.

32 bits

Word

0...1

LOGICAL*8

64 bits

Double word

0...1

REAL

REAL*4:

When the -r8 option is used, type REAL is equivalent to REAL*8.

32 bits

Word

See Table 2-2

DOUBLE PRECISION

REAL*8:

When the -d16 option is used, type DOUBLE PRECISION is equivalent to REAL*16.

64 bits

Double word:

Byte boundary divisible by eight.

See Table 2-2

REAL*16

128 bits

Double word

See Table 13

COMPLEX

COMPLEX*8:

When the -r8 option is used, type COMPLEX is equivalent to COMPLEX*16.

64 bits

Double word:

Byte boundary divisible by four.

See the first bullet item below

DOUBLE COMPLEX

COMPLEX*16:

When the -d16 option is used, type DOUBLE COMPLEX is equivalent to COMPLEX*32.

128 bits

Double word:

Byte boundary divisible by eight.

See the first bullet item below

COMPLEX*32

256 bits

Double word

See the first bullet item below

CHARACTER

8 bits

Byte

-128...127

When the alignment is half word, the byte boundary is divisible by two. When the alignment is word, the byte boundary is divisible by four.

The following notes provide details on some of the items in Table 2-1.

• Forcing INTEGER, LOGICAL, REAL, and COMPLEX variables to align on a halfword boundary is not allowed, except as permitted by the -align8, -align16, and -align32 command line options.

• Table 2-1 indicates that REAL*8 (that is, DOUBLE PRECISION) variables always align on a double-word boundary. However, Fortran permits these variables to align on a word boundary if a COMMON statement or equivalencing requires it.

• A COMPLEX data item is an ordered pair of REAL*4 numbers; a DOUBLE COMPLEX data item is an ordered pair of REAL*8 numbers; a COMPLEX*32 data item is an ordered pair of REAL*16 numbers. In each case, the first number represents the real part and the second represents the imaginary part. The following tables list the valid ranges.

• LOGICAL data items denote only the logical values TRUE and FALSE (written as .TRUE. or .FALSE.). However, to provide VMS compatibility, LOGICAL variables can be assigned all integral values of the same size.

• You must explicitly declare an array in a DIMENSION declaration or in a data type declaration. To support DIMENSION, the compiler does the following:

• allows up to seven dimensions

• assigns a default of 1 to the lower bound if a lower bound is not explicitly declared in the DIMENSION statement

• creates an array the size of its element type times the number of elements

• stores arrays in column-major mode

• The following rules apply to shared blocks of data set up by COMMON statements:

• The compiler assigns data items in the same sequence as they appear in the common statements defining the block. Data items are padded according to the alignment compiler options or the compiler defaults. See “Access of Misaligned Data”, for more information.

• You can allocate both character and noncharacter data in the same common block.

• When a common block appears in multiple program units, the compiler allocates the same size for that block in each unit, even though the size required may differ (due to varying element names, types, and ordering sequences) from unit to unit. The allocated size corresponds to the maximum size required by the block among all the program units except when a common block is defined by using DATA statements, which initialize one or more of the common block variables. In this case the common block is allocated the same size as when it is defined.

• Table 2-2 lists the approximate valid ranges for REAL*4 and REAL*8 .

Table 2-2. Valid Ranges for REAL*4 and REAL*8 Data Types

Range

REAL*4

REAL*8

Maximum

3.40282356 * 1038

1.7976931348623158 * 10308

Minimum normalized

1.17549424 * 10 -38

2.2250738585072012 * 10-308

Minimum denormalized

1.40129846 * 10-46

1.1125369292536006 * 10 -308

• REAL*16 constants have the same form as DOUBLE PRECISION constants, except the exponent indicator is Q instead of D. The following table lists the approximate valid range for REAL*16. REAL*16 values have an 11-bit exponent and a 107-bit mantissa; they are represented internally as the sum or difference of two doubles. Therefore, for REAL*16, “normal” means that both high and low parts are normals.

Valid ranges for REAL*16 Data Types

 Range Precise Exception Mode w/FS Bit Clear Maximum 1.797693134862315807937289714053023 * 10308 Minimum normalized 2.0041683600089730005034939020703004 * 10-292 Minimum denormalized 4.940656458412465441765687928682214 * 10-324
 Fast Mode Precise Exception Mode w/FS Bit Set Maximum 1.797693134862315807937289714053023 * 10308 Minimum normalized 2.0041683600089730005034939020703004 * 10-292 Minimum denormalized 2.225073858507201383090232717332404 * 10-308

## Access of Misaligned Data

The Fortran compiler allows misalignment of data if specified by special options.

The architecture of the IRIS 4D series assumes a particular alignment of data. ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 cannot violate the rules governing this alignment. Misalignment can occur when using common extensions. This is particularly true for small integer types, which have the following characteristics:

• allow intermixing of character and non-character data in COMMON and EQUIVALENCE statements

• allow mismatching the types of formal and actual parameters across a subroutine interface

• provide many opportunities for misalignment to occur

Code that use extensions that compile and execute correctly on other systems with less stringent alignment requirements may fail during compilation or execution on the IRIS 4D. This section describes a set of options to the Fortran compiler that allow the compilation and execution of programs whose data may be misaligned. The execution of programs that use these options is significantly slower than the execution of a program with aligned data.

This section describes the two methods that can be used to create an executable object file that accesses misaligned data.

### Accessing Small Amounts of Misaligned Data

Use this method if the number of instances of misaligned data access is small or use it to provide information on the occurrence of such accesses so that misalignment problems can be corrected at the source level.

This method catches and corrects bus errors due to misaligned accesses. This ties the extent of program degradation to the frequency of these accesses. This method also includes capabilities for producing a report of these accesses to enable their correction.

To use this method, use one of the following two options to the f77 command to prevent the compiler from padding data to force alignment:

• Use the -align8 option if you do not anticipate that your program will have restrictions on alignment.

• Use the -align16 option if your program must be run on a machine that requires half-word alignment.

You must also use the misalignment trap handler. This requires minor source code changes to initialize the handler and the addition of the handler binary to the link step. See the fixade(3f) reference page for details.

### Accessing Misaligned Data Without Modifying Source Code

Use this second method for programs with widespread misalignment or whose source code may not be modified.

In this method, a set of special instructions is substituted by the IRIS 4D assembler for data accesses whose alignment cannot be guaranteed. You can choose to have each source file independently substituted.

You can invoke this method by specifying one of the -align alignment options (-align8, -align16) to f77 when compiling any source file that references misaligned data. If your program passes misaligned data to system libraries, you may also have to link it with the trap handler. See the f77(1) reference page and the fixade(3f) reference page for more information.