argument keyword

The name of a dummy (or formal) argument. This name is used in the subprogram definition; it also may be used when the subprogram is invoked to associate an actual argument with a dummy argument. Using argument keywords allows the actual arguments to appear in any order. The Fortran 90 standard specifies argument keywords for all intrinsic procedures. Argument keywords for user-supplied external procedures may be specified in a procedure interface block.


(1) A data structure that contains a series of related data items arranged in rows and columns for convenient access. The C shell and the awk(1) command can store and process arrays. (2) In Fortran 90, an object with the DIMENSION attribute. It is a set of scalar data, all of the same type and type parameters. The rank of an array is at least 1, and at most 7. Arrays may be used as expression operands, procedure arguments, and function results, and they may appear in input/output (I/O) lists.


An association permits an entity to be referenced by different names in a scoping unit or by the same or different names in different scoping units. Several kinds of association exist. The principal kinds of association are pointer association, argument association, host association, use association, and storage association.

automatic variable

A variable that is not a dummy argument but whose declaration depends on a nonconstant expression (array bounds and/or character length).


A trademarked process of Cray Research that automatically divides a program into individual tasks and organizes them to make the most efficient use of the computer hardware.

bottom loading

An optimization technique used on some scalar loops in which operands are prefetched during each loop iteration for use in the next iteration. The operand is available as soon as the first loop instruction executes. A prefetch is performed even during the final loop iteration, before the loop's final jump test has been performed.


In a processing unit, a high-speed buffer storage that is continually updated to contain recently accessed contents of main storage. Its purpose is to reduce access time. In disk subsystems, a method the channel buffers use to buffer disk data during transfer between the devices and memory.

cache line

On Cray MPP systems, a cache line consists of four quad words, which is the maximum size of a hardware message.


A constant increment variable is a variable that is incremented only by a loop invariant value (for example, in a loop with index J, the statement J = J + K, in which K can be equal to 0, J is a CIV).


A data object whose value cannot be changed. A named entity with the PARAMETER attribute is called a named constant. A constant without a name is called a literal constant.


A sequence of statements that starts with a SELECT CASE, DO, IF, or WHERE statement and ends with the corresponding terminal statement.

control construct

An action statement that can change the normal execution sequence (such as a GO TO, STOP, or RETURN statement) or a CASE, DO, or IF construct.

critical region

On Cray MPP systems, a synchronization mechanism that enforces serial access to a piece of code. Only one PE may execute in a critical region at a time.

data entity

A data object, the result of the evaluation of an expression, or the result of the execution of a function reference (also called the function result). A data entity always has a type.

data object

A constant, a variable, or a part of a constant or variable.


A nonexecutable statement that specifies the attributes of a data object (for example, it may be used to specify the type of a variable or function result or the shape of an array).


This term is used in two ways. (1) A data object is said to be defined when it has a valid or predictable value; otherwise, it is undefined. It may be given a valid value by execution of statements such as assignment or input. Under certain circumstances, it may subsequently become undefined. (2) Procedures and derived types are said to be defined when their descriptions have been supplied by the programmer and are available in a program unit.

derived type

A type that is not intrinsic (a user-defined type); it requires a type definition to name the type and specify its components. The components may be of intrinsic or user-defined types. An object of derived type is called a structure. For each derived type, a structure constructor is available to specify values. Operations on objects of derived type must be defined by a function with an interface and the generic specifier OPERATOR. Assignment for derived type objects is defined intrinsically, but it may be redefined by a subroutine with the ASSIGNMENT generic specifier. Data objects of derived type may be used as procedure arguments and function results, and they may appear in input/output (I/O) lists.


Sometimes it is convenient to reference only part of an object, such as an element or section of an array, a substring of a character string, or a component of a structure. This requires the use of the name of the object followed by a selector that selects a part of the object. A name followed by a selector is called a designator.


(1) In Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) terminology, a layered protocol machine. An entity in a layer performs the functions of the layer in one computer system, accessing the layer entity below and providing services to the layer entity above at local service access points. (2) In Fortran 90, a general term used to refer to any Fortran 90 concept (for example, a program unit, a common block, a variable, an expression value, a constant, a statement label, a construct, an operator, an interface block, a derived type, an input/output (I/O) unit, a name list group, and so on).

executable construct

A statement (such as a GO TO statement) or a construct (such as a DO or CASE construct).


A set of operands, which may be function invocations, and operators that produce a value.


A structure that defines a starting block and number of blocks for an element of file data.


Usually a type of operating-system-related function written outside a program and called in to do a specific function. Smaller and more limited in capability than a utility. In a programming language, a function is usually defined as a closed subroutine that performs some defined task and returns with an answer, or identifiable return value.

The word "function" has a more specific meaning in Fortran than it has in C. In C, it is refers to any called code; in Fortran, it refers to a subprogram that returns a value.

generic specifier

An optional component of the INTERFACE statement. It can take the form of an identifier, an OPERATOR (defined_operator) clause, or an ASSIGNMENT (=) clause.


A section of memory within the user job area that provides a capability for dynamic allocation. See the HEAP directive in SR-0066.


The process of replacing a user subroutine or function call with the definition itself. This saves subprogram call overhead and may allow better optimization of the inlined code. If all calls within a loop are inlined, the loop becomes a candidate for vectorization and/or tasking.


Anything that the language defines is intrinsic. There are intrinsic data types, procedures, and operators. You may use these freely in any scoping unit. Fortran programmers may define types, procedures, and operators; these entities are not intrinsic.


(1) A type of scope in which variables are accessible only to a particular part of a program (usually one module). (2) The system initiating the request for service. This term is relative to the perspective of the user.


(1) The parallel execution of two or more parts of a program on different CPUs; these parts share an area of memory. (2) A method in multiuser systems that incorporates multiple interconnected CPUs; these CPUs run their programs simultaneously (in parallel) and shares resources such as memory, storage devices, and printers. This term can often be used interchangeably with parallel processing.


A term that identifies many different entities of a program such as a program unit, a variable, a common block, a construct, a formal argument of a subprogram (dummy argument), or a user-defined type (derived type). A name may be associated with a specific constant (named constant).


(1) A symbolic expression that indicates the action to be performed in an expression; operator types include arithmetic, relational, and logical. (2) In Fortran 90, an operator indicates a computation that involves one or two operands. Fortran 90 defines several intrinsic operators (for example, +, -, *, /, ** are numeric operators, and .NOT., .AND., and .OR. are logical operators). Users also may define operators for use with operands of intrinsic or derived types.


The nonstandard practice of referencing an array with a subscript not contained between the declared lower and upper bounds of the corresponding dimension for that array. This practice sometimes, but not necessarily, leads to referencing a storage location outside of the entire array.

parallel processing

Processing in which multiple processors work on a single application simultaneously.


(1) A data item that consists of the address of a desired item. (2) A symbol that moves around a computer screen under the control of the user.


(1) A named sequence of control statements and/or data that is saved in a library for processing at a later time, when a calling statement activates it; it provides the capability to replace values within the procedure. (2) In Fortran 90, procedure is defined by a sequence of statements that expresses a computation that may be invoked as a subroutine or function during program execution. It may be an intrinsic procedure, an external procedure, an internal procedure, a module procedure, a dummy procedure, or a statement function. If a subprogram contains an ENTRY statement, it defines more than one procedure.

procedure interface

In Fortran 90, a sequence of statements that specifies the name and characteristics of one or more procedures, the name and attributes of each dummy argument, and the generic specifier by which it may be referenced if any. See generic specifier.

In FORTRAN 77 and Fortran 90, a generic function is one whose output value data type is determined by the data type of its input arguments. In FORTRAN 77, the only generic functions allowed are those that the standard defines. In Fortran 90, programmers may construct their own generic function by creating "generic interface," which is like a regular procedure interface, except that it has a "generic specifier" (the name of the generic function) after the keyword INTERFACE.

reduction loop

A loop that contains at least one statement that reduces an array to a scalar value by doing a cumulative operation on many of the array elements. This involves including the result of the previous iteration in the expression of the current iteration.


A data object reference is the appearance of a name, designator, or associated pointer in an executable statement that requires the value of the object. A procedure reference is the appearance of the procedure name, operator symbol, or assignment symbol in an executable program that requires execution of the procedure. A module reference is the appearance of the module name in a USE statement.


(1) In Fortran 90, a single object of any intrinsic or derived type. A structure is scalar even if it has a component that is an array. The rank of a scalar is 0. (2) A nonvectorized, single numerical value that represents one aspect of a physical quantity and may be represented on a scale as a point. This term often refers to a floating-point or integer computation that is not vectorized; more generally, it also refers to logical and conditional (jump) computation.


The region of a program in which a variable is defined and can be referenced.

scoping unit

Part of a program in which a name has a fixed meaning. A program unit or subprogram generally defines a scoping unit. Type definitions and procedure interface bodies also constitute scoping units. Scoping units do not overlap, although one scoping unit may contain another in the sense that it surrounds it. If a scoping unit contains another scoping unit, the outer scoping unit is referred to as the host scoping unit of the inner scoping unit.

search loop

A loop that can be exited by means of an IF statement.


A set ordered by a one-to-one correspondence with the numbers 1, 2, through n. The number of elements in the sequence is n. A sequence may be empty, in which case, it contains no elements.


Accessible by multiple parts of a program. Shared is a type of scope.

shell variable

A name representing a string value. Variables that are usually set only on a command line are called parameters (positional parameters and keyword parameters). Other variables are simply names to which a user (user-defined variables) or the shell itself may assign string values. The shell has predefined shell variables (for example, HOME). Variables are referenced by prefixing the variable name by a $ (for example, $HOME).

software pipelining

Software pipelining is a compiler code generation technique in which operations from various loop iterations are overlapped in order to exploit instruction-level parallelism, increase instruction issue rate, and better hide memory and instruction latency. As an optimization technique, software pipelining is similar to bottom loading, but it includes additional, and more efficient, scheduling optimizations.

Cray compilers perform safe bottom loading by default. Under these conditions, code generated for a loop contains operations and stores associated with the present loop iteration and contains loads associated with the next loop iteration. Loads for the first iteration are generated in the loop preamble.

When software pipelining is performed, code generated for the loop contains loads, operations, and stores associated with various iterations of the loop. Loads and operations for first iterations are generated in the preamble to the loop. Operations and stores for last iterations of loop are generated in the postamble to the loop.

statement keyword

A keyword that is part of the syntax of a statement. Each statement, other than an assignment statement and a statement function definition, begins with a statement keyword. Examples of these keywords are IF, READ, and INTEGER. Statement keywords are not reserved words; you may use them as names to identify program elements.


A single-processor optimization technique in which arrays, and the program loops that reference them, are split into optimally-sized blocks, termed strips. The original loop is transformed into two nested loops. The inner loop references all data elements within a single strip, and the outer loop selects the strip to be addressed in the inner loop. This technique is often performed by the compiler to maximize the usage of cache memory or as part of vector code generation.


A language construct that declares a collection of one or more variables grouped together under one name for convenient handling. In C and C++, a structure is defined with the struct keyword. In Fortran 90, a derived type is defined first and various structures of that type are subsequently declared.


Parts of a data object may be referenced and defined separately from other parts of the object. Portions of arrays are array elements and array sections. Portions of character strings are substrings. Portions of structures are structure components. Subobjects are referenced by designators and are considered to be data objects themselves.


A series of instructions that accomplishes a specific task for many other routines. (A subsection of a user-written program of varying size and, therefore, function. It is written within the program. It is not a subsection of a routine.) It differs from a main routine in that one of its parameters must specify the location to which to return in the main program after the function has been accomplished.


An acronym that represents attributes for argument association. It represents the data type, kind type parameter, and rank of the argument.

type parameter

Two type parameters exist for intrinsic types: kind and length. The kind type parameter KIND indicates the decimal range for the integer type, the decimal precision and exponent range for the real and complex types, and the machine representation method for the character and logical types. The length type parameter LEN indicates the length of a character string.


(1) A name that represents a string value. Variables that usually are set only on a command line are called parameters. Other variables are simply names to which the user or the shell may assign string values. (2) In Fortran 90, data object whose value can be defined and redefined. A variable may be a scalar or an array. (3) In the shell command language, a named parameter. See also shell variable.