Chapter 8. Troubleshooting

SX.25 provides troubleshooting information by means of the STREAMS trace and logging utilities, and in error messages from IRIX and IRIX networking services. This chapter provides information on each source of troubleshooting information:

STREAMS Trace Messages

STREAMS trace messages can be printed out by using strace (see the trace (1M) reference page). Without arguments, it writes all STREAMS event trace messages from all drivers and modules to its standard output, or a subset of these when arguments are given. Arguments define what the subset should be, and arguments must be in triplets of the form mid, sid, level. Arguments have these meanings:

  • mid is the STREAMS module/driver ID number for the module or driver submitting the log message.

  • sid is an internal sub_id number.

  • level is a tracing level that allows for selective filtering of low-priority messages from the tracer.

Each triplet indicates that tracing messages are to be received from the given module or driver, sub_id, and priority level equal to or less than the given level. The token all may be used for any member to indicate no restriction for that attribute.

The following modules and drivers within SX.25 currently generate STREAMS trace messages.

X.25 PLP Driver

Module Id 

200

Sid 

Set to identifier of subnetwork packet tx/rx on

Levels 

1 - 6

Six levels of tracing are available.

Trace Level 1 - Call Activity

Monitors incoming calls, outgoing calls, calls accepted, and calls connected. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, LCI, and GFI are logged.

CALL In  : `65' lcn 400 gfi 5
CALL Out : `66' lcn 401 gfi 1
CAA Out  : `65' lcn 400 gfi 1
CAA In   : `66' lcn 401 gfi 1

Trace Level 2 - Clear Activity

Monitors clear requests, clear indications, and clear confirmations. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, and the LCI are logged. For clear requests and clear indications, the cause and diagnostic are also logged.

CLR In  : `65' lcn 400 C/D 0043
CLR Out : `66' lcn 401 C/D 80F2
CLC In  : `66' lcn 401
CLC Out : `65' lcn 400 

Trace Level 3 - Reset Activity

Monitors reset indications, reset requests, and reset confirmations. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, and the LCI are logged. For reset requests and reset indications, the cause and diagnostic are also logged.

RST In  : `65' lcn 400 C/D 0003
RST Out : `66' lcn 401 C/D 00FA
RSC In  : `66' lcn 401
RSC Out : `67' lcn 400 

Trace Level 4 - Restart Activity

Monitors restart indications, restart requests, and restart confirmations. For each event, a description and the subnetwork ID are logged. For restart requests and restart indications, the cause and diagnostic are also logged.

REST In   : `65' C/D 1300
REST Out  : `66' C/D 0000
RESTC In  : `66'
RESTC Out : `65' 

Trace Level 5 - Interrupt Activity

Monitors interrupt data indications, interrupt data requests, and interrupt confirmations. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, and the LCI are logged.

INT In   : `65' lcn 400
INT Out  : `66' lcn 401
INTC In  : `66' lcn 401
INTC Out : `65' lcn 400 

Trace Level 6 - Data Activity

Monitors data indications and data requests. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, the LCI, the send sequence number, and the receive sequence number are logged.

DATA In  : `65' lcn 400 ns/nr 0702
DATA Out : `66' lcn 401 ns/nr 0500

Example Trace Logging Output

# strace 200 all all 
000187 16:07:30 0001c15b 4 ... 200 67 REST In   : `67' C/D 0000
000188 16:07:30 0001c15b 4 ... 200 67 RESTC Out : `67' 
000189 16:08:01 0001cf60 1 ... 200 67 CALL Out  : `67' lci 001 gfi 1
000190 16:08:03 0001cf62 1 ... 200 67 CLR In    : `67' lci 001 C/D 0900 
000199 16:08:11 0001cfa8 6 ... 200 65 DATA In   : `65' lci 43f ns/nr 0000 
000200 16:08:11 0001cfbo 6 ... 200 65 DATA Out  : `65' lci 43f ns/nr 0001 
000201 16:08:12 0001d5c8 3 ... 200 65 RST Out   : `65' lci 43f C/D 00fa 
000202 16:08:12 0001d5cb 3 ... 200 65 RSC In    : `65' lci 43f 

Notes:

  1. Tracing of an incoming event does not imply that the packet has been accepted by the X.25 driver. This is because tracing of incoming events is triggered on receiving data from the link level. At this point, the packet has still to be verified and, if in error, may be discarded or cause some further protocol action.

  2. Similarly, tracing of an outgoing event does not imply that the packet has been sent to the link-level driver. This is because tracing of outgoing events is triggered on requests to send data to the link level. At this point, various consistency checks are performed on the required link-level database, and, if they fail, the packet is discarded.

LAPB Driver

Module Id 

201

Sid 

Set to identifier of subnetwork packet tx/rx on

Levels 

1 - 4

Four levels of tracing are available.

Trace Level 1 - Setup and Disconnection Activity

Monitors all link setup and disconnection events. For each event, a description and the subnetwork ID are logged. For disconnection events, an indication of whether locally or remotely initiated is also logged.

LINK Up : `65' 
LINK Dwn : `66' Remote

Trace Level 2 - Reset Activity

Monitors all link reset events. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, and an indication of whether locally and remotely initiated are logged.

LINK Rst : `66' Local 
LINK Rst : `65' Remote 

Trace Level 3 - Error Activity

Monitors sending and receiving of FRMR and REJ frames. For each event, a description and the subnetwork ID are logged. For FRMR frames, the error flag is also logged. For REJ frames, the send sequence number in error is also logged.

FRMR In : `65' Err 01 
FRMR Out : `66' Err 08 
REJ In : `66' N(007) 
REJ Out : `68' N(006)

Trace Level 4 - Busy Activity

Monitors all link busy conditions. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, and an indication of whether locally or remotely initiated events are logged.

LINK Bsy : `65' Local 
LINK Bsy : `66' Remote 

Example Trace Logging Output

# strace 201 all all 
000187 16:07:30 0001c15b 1 ... 201 65 LINK Up  : `65' 
000188 16:07:30 0001c15b 1 ... 201 65 LINK Dwn : `65' Local 
000189 16:08:01 0001cf60 3 ... 201 65 FRMR In  : `65' Err 01 
000190 16:08:03 0001cf62 2 ... 201 65 LINK Rst : `65' Remote 
000197 16:08:06 0001cf6c 3 ... 201 65 REJ  Out : `65' N(006) 
000198 16:08:06 0001cfa7 4 ... 201 65 LINK Bsy : `65' Local

Notes:

  1. Tracing of an incoming event does not imply that the frame has been accepted by the LAPB driver. This is because tracing of incoming events is triggered on receiving data from the WAN. At this point, the frame has still to be verified and, if in error, may be discarded or cause some further protocol action.

  2. Tracing of an outgoing event implies that the frame has been sent to the WAN driver. It does not imply that the frame will be transmitted on the line.

LLC2 Driver

Module Id 

202

Sid 

Set to identifier of subnetwork packet tx/rx on

Levels 

1 - 5

Five levels of tracing are available.

Trace Level 1 - Setup and Disconnection Activity

Monitors all link setup and disconnection events. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, and the connection identifier are logged. For disconnection events, an indication of whether locally or remotely initiated is also logged.

LINK Up  : `C' Id 001 
LINK Dwn : `C' Id 002 Remote 

Trace Level 2 - Reset Activity

Monitors all link reset events. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, the connection identifier, and an indication of whether locally or remotely initiated are logged.

LINK Rst : `68' Id 001 Local 
LINK Rst : `67' Id 021 Remote 

Trace Level 3 - Error Activity

Monitors sending of FRMR and REJ frames. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, the connection identifier, and an indication of whether locally or remotely initiated are logged. For FRMR frames, the error flag is also logged. For REJ frames, the send sequence number in error is also logged.

FRMR In  : `67' Id 010 Err 01 
FRMR Out : `68' Id 009 Err 08 
REJ In   : `67' Id 010 N(007) 
REJ Out  : `67' Id 023 N(006)

Trace Level 4 - Busy Activity

Monitors all link busy conditions. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, the connection identifier, and an indication of whether locally or remotely initiated are logged.

LINK Bsy : `67' Id 012 Local 
LINK Bsy : `67' Id 013 Remote 

Trace Level 5 - Type 1 Activity

The following type 1 events are monitored: sending and receiving of XID and TEST frames. For each event, a description, the subnetwork ID, and the connection identifier are logged.

TEST Out : `67' Id 000 
XID In : `67' Id 013 
XID Out : `67' Id 013 

Example Trace Logging Output

# strace 202 67 all 
000186 16:07:27 0001c150 5 ... 202 67 XID  Out : `67' Id 001 
000187 16:07:30 0001c152 1 ... 202 67 LINK Up  : `67' Id 001 
000188 16:07:30 0001c15b 1 ... 202 67 LINK Dwn : `67' Id 010 Local 
000189 16:08:01 0001cf60 3 ... 202 67 FRMR In  : `67' Id 038 Err 01 
000190 16:08:03 0001cf62 2 ... 202 67 LINK Rst : `67' Id 231 Remote 
000197 16:08:06 0001cf6c 3 ... 202 67 REJ  Out : `67' Id 128 N(006) 
000198 16:08:06 0001cfa7 4 ... 202 67 LINK Bsy : `67' Id 007 Local

Notes:

  1. Tracing of an incoming event does not imply that the frame has been accepted by the LLC2 driver. This is because tracing of incoming events is triggered on receiving data from the Ethernet level. At this point, the frame has still to be verified and, if in error, may be discarded or cause some further protocol action.

  2. Tracing of an outgoing event implies that the frame has been sent to the Ethernet driver. It does not imply that the frame will be transmitted on the Ethernet.

Tracing Summary

Table 8-1 shows the available tracing levels for the three types of drivers:

Table 8-1. Tracing Levels

Level

X.25 Driver

LAPB Driver

LLC2 Driver

 

ID 200

ID 201

ID 202

1

Call Setup

Link Up/Down

Link Up/Down

2

Call Clearing

Link Reset

Link Reset

3

Call Reset

Error Activity

Error Activity

4

Restart Activity

Link Busy

Link Busy

5

Interrupt Packets

--

Type 1 Activity

6

Data Packets

--

--


STREAMS Error Messages

STREAMS error messages can be captured using strerr (see the strerr (1M) reference page). This receives error messages and appends them to an error log file. This utility is normally run when the system initializes to multiuser state.

The following types of errors are logged:

System errors 

Errors in the internal workings of the module/driver.

Reference errors 


Errors in the references used between upper and lower modules/drivers

Interface errors 

Errors in messages passed over the interfaces.

Allocation errors 


Errors in the allocation of memory for database elements.

The X25 PLP driver, the LAPB driver, and the LLC2 driver of SX.25 currently generate STREAMS error log messages.

Network Board-Loading (nbload) Error Messages

Error <reason> in GETDET command

The specified board could not be opened for loading, for the reason stated in <reason>. For example, a board has been configured but is not present. Reconfigure the boards using x25adm ipconfig and x25adm x25config.

Error <reason> in EXECUTE command - line <lineno> of /var/opt/snet/brdconf

The program downloaded to the board could not be executed, for the reason stated in <reason>. The board can be identified by referring to line number <lineno> in /etc/brdconf. This error may be due to a board crash. Reboot the system.

nbload: Invalid address for X.25 (WAN) board on line <lineno> of /var/opt/snet/brdconf

An address has been configured for use on an X.25 (WAN) board. This field should be null. Reconfigure the board using x25adm x25config.

Network Daemon (snetd) Error Messages

attempt to multiplex module <module> bad format

The /etc/config/snetd.options file is not in the expected format. Configure the network parameters using x25adm.

ECHO_TYPE ioctl failed:<reason>

The Echo/Ethernet registration failed. This may be due to an incorrectly configured Ethernet card.

Reconfigure the Ethernet card.

failed to open <file>:<reason>

The configuration file <file> (default:/etc/config/snetd.options) could not be opened, for the reason stated in <reason>. The configuration of the Internet address and other network parameters has not been successfully completed.

Configure the network parameters.

failed to open driver <driver>:<reason>

The lines referring to the driver <driver> in the /etc/config/snetd.options file are wrong. The operation failed for the reason stated in <reason>. Configure the network parameters.

failed to open Ethernet Driver:<reason>

The Ethernet driver could not be opened, for the reason stated.

failed to open stream <stream>:<reason>

The lines referring to the stream <stream> in the /etc/config/snetd.options file are wrong. The operation failed for the reason stated in <reason>. Configure the network parameters.

failed to link stream <stream> under driver <driver>:<reason>

The lines referring to the stream <stream> in the /etc/config/snetd.options file are wrong. The operation failed for the reason stated in <reason>. Configure the network parameters.

failed to push module <module>:<reason>

The lines referring to the module <module> in the /etc/config/snetd.options file are wrong. The operation failed for the reason stated in <reason>. Configure the network parameters.

I_PUSH (<module>):<reason>

The kernel module <module> could not be pushed onto a stream, for the reason stated in <reason>.

IP_NET_ADDR ioctl failed

The Internet address, subnet mask, and other parameters on the IP_NET line in the /etc/config/snetd.options file have not been correctly configured. This error may also be given if more IP-IXE lines have been configured in the /etc/config/snetd.options file than are configured in the IXE kernel. This error can only occur if you also have SGI TCP in your network.

Reconfigure the network parameters for this IP network.

IXE_SNREG ioctl failed

This failure is due to IXE being incorrectly configured. For example, an IP address referring to an IP-IXE link in the /etc/config/snetd.options does not match the address in the /etc/ixetuneconf file.

Reconfigure IXE correctly.

must specify `d' or `m' flag

One of the flags in a line at the top of the /etc/config/snetd.options file declaring the name of a driver, cloneable driver, or a module is not valid.

no driver below module <module> unknown module <module>

The lines referring to the module <module> in the /etc/config/snetd.options file are wrong.

Configure the network parameters.

unexpected delimiter

The /etc/config/snetd.options file is not in the expected format.

Configure the network parameters.

non numeric instantiation

The explicit association of multiple instances of a module in the /etc/config/snetd.options file has a non-numeric label.

out of memory

There is insufficient memory for the data structures required to start the network.

unknown control action: <reason>

The file /etc/config/snetd.options contains a line with the unknown registration message <reason>

<parameter> arg count (number) wrong!

The number of arguments to the parameter <parameter> in the /etc/config/snetd.options file is incorrect.

Configure the network parameters.

warning: ignoring <flag> flag

One of the flags in a line at the top of the /etc/config/snetd.options file declaring the name of a driver, cloneable driver, or a module is not valid.

warning: assuming `c' flags means driver

One of the flags in a line at the top of the /etc/config/snetd.options file declaring the name of a driver, cloneable driver, or a module is not valid.

warning: `m' flag ignored for driver

One of the flags in a line at the top of the /etc/config/snetd.options file declaring the name of a driver, cloneable driver, or a module is not valid.

warning: `c' flag ignored for

One of the flags in a line at the top of the /etc/config/snetd.options file declaring the name of a driver, cloneable driver, or a module is not valid.