This chapter describes how to install software using the Inst Main menu. It explains how to use Main menu commands in a typical installation session and what to do after the installation is done to put the target back into service. Use the instructions in this chapter to complete the installation after you have performed the procedures in Chapter 3, “Starting an Installation.”
This chapter contains these sections:
If you prefer to use a graphical user interface and Software Manager is installed on the target system, you can access Software Manager from the System toolchest and use it to do the installation (for live installations only). See the software installation instructions in the Personal System Administration Guide for help with using Software Manager.
The procedure in this section shows you how to perform a software installation using a particular sequence of commands from the Inst Main menu. The order in which the commands are described is somewhat arbitrary; it illustrates one of many command sequences that might be used to do an installation. As you become familiar with Inst, you can vary the command order, repeat commands, use additional keyword arguments, and enter commands from other menus during installation sessions.
|Note: If you are an experienced Inst user, you might prefer to use the “Condensed Installation Instructions” instead of this procedure.|
This procedure partitions the installation into seven steps. Each step is explained in the subsections that follow.
Specify the distribution source using the from command.
Display software information using the list commands.
Make your software selections with install, remove, and keep commands.
Launch the installation using the go command.
Resolve any conflicts (conflicts command) or errors.
Quit the installation session.
|Note: Inst never installs or removes any software until you enter the go command.|
Figure 4-1 illustrates the steps in the installation process. Notice that Inst performs an automatic initialization sequence during the process. Initialization is triggered by the first command of a session that requires Inst to collect information about the distribution or target software. In Figure 4-1, the trigger is the from command.
For miniroot installations, Inst is automatically started when the miniroot is loaded (see “Starting a Miniroot Installation”). For live installations, Inst is started from the command line of an IRIX shell (see “Starting a Live Installation”). After Inst is started, it displays the default distribution source and the Main menu, as shown in Figure 4-2.
Perform this step only if you need to change the distribution source from which software will be installed. By default, Inst uses the distribution that was previously specified as the source of installable software for a live installation. For miniroot installations, Inst expects to use the distribution from which you loaded the miniroot. The default source is posted in a message above the Main menu when Inst is started. You can either accept the default source or change it using the from command.
Use the from command to change from one distribution source to another. You can enter the from command to change distributions as many times as you need to during an installation session. Your entry can take one of the forms of from listed below (also see “Alternative Ways to Specify a Distribution”):
These examples illustrate how to specify distributions that are on a local CD-ROM drive and on a local disk directory:
This form of from also applies to directories and CD-ROM drives that are NFS mounted on the target system.
Before Inst takes any installation actions, it reads information about the distribution and target. During initialization, Inst obtains historical data about previous installations and reads the product descriptions on the distribution. It also checks for software dependencies among subsystems, makes preliminary installation selections and calculates their sizes, and checks disk availability on the target. As this initialization occurs, you see messages similar to these:
Reading installation history .. 100% Done. Reading distribution .. 100% Done. Checking dependencies .. 100% Done. Calculating sizes .. 100% Done.
When the automatic functions are finished, the Inst> prompt appears, and you can continue with the installation session.
|Note: If you do not enter the from command in this step, Inst performs initialization before executing the next command that you enter.|
Displaying software information is an optional step in the installation procedure. You can omit this step if you are already familiar with the products that you plan to install. In most cases, however, this step is necessary to evaluate distribution and target software and to do progress checks during the selection process.
By default, the list command displays a list of all subsystems in the distribution inventory; but you can also display a complete list of software on the target using the view command (see “Using the View Commands Menu” for additional ways of using view to control list displays). As you select software for installation or removal (step 4 of this procedure), list displays are automatically updated to reflect your selections.
Use the list command with no arguments to display the distribution list (if you did not enter the from command in step 2, Inst performs initialization before executing the list command). You can use the names of products and their components, metacharacters, and other keywords as arguments to list commands to save time (see “Using Command Shortcuts” for details).
Example 4-1 illustrates a list entry and the legend that precedes list displays. In this example, the distribution contains a software patch.
View: distribution Status: N=New, U=Upgrade, S=Same, D=downgrade, P=patch upgrade Patches: A=installable patch, X=uninstallable patch (missing base product) Selection: i=install, r=remove, k=keep Subsystem Type(s) [bdrpc]: b=reBoot needed, d=Default, r=Required, p=Patch, c=client only
As Example 4-1 shows, the list legend provides information about software components and about actions taken during the installation session:
View identifies the location of software in Inst displays: target or distribution.
Status mnemonics convey comparison information between software on the target and software on the distribution software.
Patches mnemonics are shown if the distribution contains patches; they indicate the appropriateness of the patch for the current installation.
Selection mnemonics convey information about installation actions that have been specified either during automatic initialization or by the user.
Subsystem Types mnemonics are the only mnemonics to appear to the right of the software name in a list display; they provide information about distribution software requirements and designations.
Example 4-2 illustrates sample list output of a distribution inventory.
S bvo.sw.bvo 0 VGX Broadcast Video Option Software S bvo.sw.diag 0 VGX Broadcast Video Option Diags i U compiler_eoe.sw.cpp [bdr] 0 Source Code Preprocessor i U compiler_eoe.sw.lboot 43+ Kernel lboot Software i U compiler_eoe.sw.lib [bdr] 3+ Base Execution Libraries i U compiler_eoe.sw.unix 40+ IRIX Execution Environment D desktop_tools.sw.tools [d] 0 Desktop Tools N onc3_eoe.sw.cachefs 0 ONC3 6.2 Cache File System
Frequently, list displays comprise several screens of information. To display more information, press <Enter> at the more prompt to see a new line and press the spacebar to see a new screen. You can also quit the display before reaching the end by typing q at the more prompt.
Use these commands to change the view and display target software:
Inst> view targ
Example 4-3 shows sample list output of target software (the legend is omitted from this display).
I bvo.sw.bvo 0 VGX Broadcast Video Option Software I bvo.sw.diag 0 VGX Broadcast Vidio Option Diags u I compiler_eoe.sw.cpp [bdr] 0 Source Code Preprocessor u I compiler_eoe.sw.lboot 43- Kernel lboot Software u I compiler_eoe.sw.lib [bdr] 3- Base Execution Libraries u I compiler_eoe.sw.unix 40- IRIX Execution Environment I desktop_tools.sw.tools [d] 0 Desktop Tools R showcase.sw.data [d] 0 Necessary Data Files R showcase.sw.showcase [d] 0 IRIS Showcase 3.3 Software
Use this command to return the view to the distribution:
Inst> view dist
A list display contains several columns of information about each software component in the display. Some columns convey information by means of mnemonic tags, which are defined in the list legend (see Example 4-1). Columns appear empty when a tag is unassigned or when the tag is masked by the current view setting (see “The target and distribution Commands” for more information).
The columns in list displays contain this information:
A pending selection on the software component, if a selection was made. This column may contain any item listed in the Selection line of the list legend.
The status of the software component relative to its corresponding component on the target or distribution. This column contains an item listed in the Status line of the list legend.
The name of the software component. When software subsystems are displayed, the name may be followed by one or more special designations from the Subsystem Type line of the list legend (see Example 4-1).
For software items being installed (i) or removed (r), a comparison between the disk space requirements of the distribution and target versions of the software. The amount, which is displayed in kilobytes by default, is followed by a plus sign if additional space is required or a minus sign if space is freed. If items are not selected for installation or removal or if there is no net change, the size shown is zero.
A brief description of the software component. The content of this description varies slightly with each product.
These items from Example 4-2 further illustrate the information provided about distribution software by the list command:
|i U compiler_eoe.sw.cpp [bdr]|
|i U compiler_eoe.sw.unix...26-|
|D desktop_tools.sw.tools [d]|
The information in Example 4-3 indicates that most products from the distribution are currently installed (I) on the target, but the showcase subsystems have been removed (R). One distribution product from Example 4-2, onc3_eoe, does not appear in the target list in Example 4-3. Also notice that items marked for installation (i) in the distribution list are marked for upgrading (u) in the target list.
A list display also includes patch components if patches are present on the distribution or target. Example 4-4 illustrates patch entries in a list display.
DA patchSG0000000.eoe1_sw.unix [bp] 0 IRIX Execution Environment SA patchSG0000001.eoe1_sw.unix [bp] 0 IRIX Execution Environment PA patchSG0000002.eoe1_sw.unix [bp] 0 IRIX Execution Environment NA patchSG0000005.4DDN_sw.4DDN [bd] 0 4DDN Software NX patchSG0000011.dwb_sw.aps [p] 0 Autologic APS-5 Fonts
The mnemonic tags on patches have these meanings:
(Downgrade Available) This patch applies to an installed base subsystem; it is a downgrade to another patch that is already installed.
(New Available) This patch applies to a base subsystem that is installed or available for installation; it does not apply to any installed patch.
(New Uninstallable) This patch applies to software that is not installed and not available for installation from this distribution.
(Patch Upgrade) This patch upgrades installed software.
(Same Available) This patch is already installed.
At the end of each listing, the list command posts a disk space summary similar to those shown in Example 4-5. The summary identifies the target filesystems to receive the selected software, estimates the additional space (or space savings) that will result if the selected software is installed, calculates the space overhead required by installation processing, and reports the amount of space that will be available on the target filesystems after the installation. Estimates in disk space summaries are based on the current installation selections.
Disk Space summary (Kbytes) / Current free space 564432 - Selections net change 1276+ - Temporary inst overhead 53+ = Minimum free during install 563103 Final projected free space 563156
Three types of actions can occur on a target during an installation: Distribution software is installed, target software is removed, and some target software is kept in its present condition. In this step, you specify which of these actions should be taken against selected software when the installation is performed (step 5 of this procedure). The install, remove, and keep commands select software for the designated action.
In most cases, the selection step is needed to adjust software for the disk capacity of the target and the needs of its users. However, in some cases it is possible to accept the automatic selections that Inst made during initialization. These selections are described in “Accepting Automatic Selections”.
|Note: If the automatic selections described on page 52 are suitable for your circumstances, you can accept these selections and go directly to step 5 of this procedure.|
The install, remove, and keep commands select software products and their components for a particular action. No action is taken until you enter the go command (see “Step 5: Launching the Installation”), so you can change your selections as many times as necessary before entering go.
|Note: You can use the step command to display items on the distribution individually and make your selections as each item is displayed. See “Using step to Make Selections” for details.|
When you make your selections, keep these points in mind:
Usually, Inst has already made some installation selections automatically (see “Accepting Automatic Selections”). Use the install command to select software that is not already selected.
In some cases, you might not want an automatic (or user) selection installed on the target, or the currently installed version may be more suitable. When this is the case, use the keep command to preserve the current condition on the target.
During the installation, Inst automatically removes target software that will be upgraded by software from the distribution (illustrated by Example 4-3). It is not necessary to use the remove command on these products—use the remove command only on currently installed software that you no longer want on the target.
Use the list command periodically to check the selection status of products and product components during this step (see “Step 3: Displaying Software Information”).
It is sometimes useful to alternate the selection process with the launch process (see “Step 5: Launching the Installation”), selecting and installing a subset of software in each cycle.
In their simplest form, the install, remove, and keep commands contain one argument that identifies the product, image, or subsystem on which the action will be taken. If you specify a product or image as the argument to the install, remove, or keep commands, the action is taken on all subsystems of the product or image.
These sample entries explain the effects of selection command entries:
|Inst> install sysmon|
|Inst> remove InPerson.books|
|Inst> keep DeltaCC.sw.backend|
You can use multiple arguments in install, remove, or keep commands, as shown in Example 4-6. Your list of arguments can extend to a new line, as long as you do not end the line with a blank space.
Inst> install sysmon cadmin mmail desktop_eoe dmedia_eoe quickt ime_dev imgtools.sw showcase Inst> keep InPerson.books InPerson.sw Inst> remove DeltaCC.sw.backend DeltaCC.man.relnotes
You can use the names of products and their components, metacharacters, and keywords as arguments to the install, remove, and keep commands to save time (see “Using Command Shortcuts” for more information). These sample entries illustrate the use of keywords in selection commands:
|Inst> install required|
|Inst> remove *.man|
|Inst> keep I eoe*|
You can enter a list command during the selection process whenever the Inst> prompt is displayed. The first column of the listing and the disk space summary information reflects your selections and their effects on disk space.
Recall from step 3 that Inst automatically made some preliminary selections during initialization (also see “Automatic Initialization Functions”). If you accept the automatic selections, you can omit step 4 and go on to “Step 5: Launching the Installation”.
Use this command to display the list of software that is selected for installation:
Inst> list i
Example 4-7 illustrates a portion of the display that was generated by the previous list command. Notice that the display concludes with an estimate of space requirements, which may help you decide whether to accept the automatic selections.
i U eoe.sw.gfx_lib bdr 19+ Graphics Execution Libraries i U eoe.sw.irix_lib bdr 991+ IRIX Execution Libraries i U eoe.sw.unix bdr 6674+ IRIX Execution Environment i U eoe.sw.cdrom d 241+ CD-ROM Support i U eoe.sw.crypt d 25+ Security Administration Utilities i U eoe.sw.gltools d 80+ Graphics Library Tools Disk Space summary (Kbytes) / Current free space 564432 - Selections net change 64793+ - Temporary inst overhead 53+ = Minimum free during install 499586 Final projected free space 499639
The selections that you made in step 4 are processed when you launch the installation with the go command. The order in which you made selections in step 4 has no effect on the order in which they are processed. You can process any number of selections: it is not necessary to complete all your selections before you enter go.
|Note: Inst will detect a conflict condition if you fail to include any prerequisite software in a selected subset (see “Step 6: Resolving Conflicts and Other Errors” for details).|
As the go command executes, Inst determines whether your selections contain incompatibilities, missing prerequisites, space shortages, or other errors that might make the new software configuration unsuitable for the target. To keep you informed of events, Inst posts status messages during go processing.
Inst> go Pre-installation check .. 100% Done. Installing/removing software .. 0% Installing new versions of selected pv.man subsystems Installing/removing software .. 44% Installing new versions of selected pv.sw subsystems Installing/removing software .. 100% Done. Removing orphaned directories Done. Running exit commands .. 100% Done. Checking dependencies .. 100% Done. Installations and removals were successful. You may continue with installations or quit now. Inst>
Notice that Example 4-8 contains a success message:
Installations and removals were successful
When you see this message, you can either continue the installation session or go directly to “Step 7: Quitting the Installation Session”. If you receive an error message instead of a success message, complete “Step 6: Resolving Conflicts and Other Errors” before going on to step 7.
The installations and removals that you specified in step 4 are not performed if conflicts or error conditions are detected during go processing. Conflicts occur if you select software that depends on prerequisites that you did not select, or if a selection is incompatible with other selections or with installed software. Other errors that occur during go command processing are resolved with routine corrective actions (see Appendix B, “Troubleshooting Installations,” for additional error-handling information).
If Inst detects a conflict in the software that you selected, it posts a conflicts message after you enter the go command. Conflict error messages are followed by a description of the conflicts and recommended actions that you can safely perform to resolve the conflicts. You use the conflicts command to select a suggested resolution. You can also enter the conflicts command periodically during the selection process to display any conflicts that might be accumulating as a result of your selections.
Example 4-9 illustrates a message describing two conflicts.
ERROR: Conflicts must be resolved. Movie Playback, Recording, Conversion cannot be installed because of missing prerequisites: 1a. Do not install Movie Playback, Recording, Conversion 1b. Also install Compression Execution Environment DLPI Execution Environment cannot be removed because other products depend on it: 2a. Do not remove DLPI Execution Environment 2b. Also remove 4DDN Software
To resolve a conflict, enter the conflicts command and your choice of resolutions as command arguments, as shown in Example 4-10.
Inst> conflicts 1b 2a
When you have successfully resolved all conflicts, Inst posts a success message. Enter the go command after the message to process any new selections.
No conflicts Inst> go
If the go command returns a success message (see Example 4-8), you can continue with the session or go on to “Step 7: Quitting the Installation Session”.
If Inst is unable to execute go for reasons other than conflicts, it posts error messages that suggest the cause of the error and presents choices for your next action. Errors can occur during pre-installation checking, while software is being installed and removed, or during exit operations.
Example 4-11 illustrates an error that occurs in pre-installation checking.
Inst> go ERROR: Subsystems cannot be installed/removed because they contain files in write-protected directories. ERROR: Subsystems cannot be installed/removed because they contain files on read-only NFS-mounted filesystems. Inst>
Most error messages contain information that suggests the needed corrective action; however, if you need additional information to correct an error, see Appendix B, “Troubleshooting Installations.”
Example 4-12 illustrates an error that occurs during installation processing.
Inst> go Pre-installation check Installing/removing software Upgrading selected prod1.man subsystems Installing new versions of selected prod1.sw subsystems ERROR : An error occurred while Installing new versions of selected prod1.sw subsystems Archive /swmgr/products/prod1/images/prod1.sw is corrupt Error/Interrupt Menu 1. retry Retry the failed operation 2. stop Terminate current command 3. continue Continue current command 4. set[preferences] List all preferences or set/clear a preference 5. help [topic] Get help in general or on a specific word 6. sh [cmd] Escape to a shell or run a command 7. shroot [cmd] Escape to a chrooted shell or run a command Interrupt>
Notice from Example 4-12 that if you encounter errors during installation, Inst displays the Interrupt menu (explained in “Using the Interrupt Menu”). This version of the Interrupt menu includes a “retry” choice, which might be used, for example, if the error is caused by a network timeout. If you need additional information to correct the error, see Appendix B, “Troubleshooting Installations.”
Example 4-13 illustrates an error that occurs during exit operations.
ERROR : Sub-command “cd $rbase/usr/lib/filetype; ./tagscript $rbase; rm tagscript” returned status 1 100% Done. Errors occurred executing exit-ops
See Appendix B, “Troubleshooting Installations” for an explanation of messages that are generated during exit operations.
You can leave an installation session at any time by issuing the quit command at the Inst prompt. If any installation or removal selections are pending, Inst notifies you:
Inst> quit There are products marked for installation or removal. Do you really want to quit?(y/n)
If you enter y, the session ends and your pending selections are not processed. Enter n if you decide to continue the session.
If the installation installed a new icon in the icon database, you see this message:
The Icon Database is being updated. Desktop icons may disappear for a moment.
The icons disappear and then reappear after about five seconds.
In some cases, there may be unresolved conflicts when you enter the quit command to end a session. For example, unresolved conflicts occur when you try to end a session without installing all software that is required for an operating system upgrade.
If there are unresolved conflicts when you enter the quit command, Inst posts this message:
ERROR: INCOMPATIBLE SUBSYSTEMS INSTALLED Some software that was already installed on your system prior to this session is incompatible with the new software. The conflict messages above (or below) list the incompatible software. You can either: - Insert another CD or specify another distribution directory that contains compatible versions of software (for example, if you are in the middle of an operating system upgrade, insert the next CD that you received with the upgrade), then start the installation. - Remove the incompatible software by making conflict resolution choices as shown above (or below).
This message is followed by a list of conflicts that must be resolved before you can end the session successfully. See “Step 6: Resolving Conflicts and Other Errors” for information on conflict resolution.
|Note: If you set the rulesoverride preference on (not recommended), the conflicts message varies from the one shown in Example 4-14. With rulesoverride on, the message identifies the unresolved conflicts and warns you that the installation will be performed despite remaining conflicts.|
If you install products that require a system reboot to put the software into effect, you see the message in Example 4-15.
Installations and removals were successful You must reboot your system to complete the installation. Inst>
After you reboot the system, you see this message:
Requickstarting necessary files
During exit processing, Inst synchronizes the libraries and executable files in the new installation that rely on shared objects. This process is known as a requickstart; it ensures a faster startup time for the affected files. For some installations, the requickstart might require as long as 20 minutes; however, for most installations, much less time is required. During the requickstart, you see informational messages similar to this:
Building dynamic ELF inventory file for rqs(1) processing .. 100% Done. Invoking rqs(1) on necessary dynamic ELF objects .. 100% Done.
If an installation session is interrupted by an abnormal event (such as a power failure), Inst saves a record of pending requests for product installations and removals in a checkpoint restart file. At the start of the next session, Inst posts a checkpoint restart notice that identifies the software distribution and lists the products on which actions are pending.
This checkpoint restart message is displayed if an installation session is interrupted abnormally:
To proceed, choose one of the restart selections from this prompt. Checkpoint restart selections have these effects:
Retry the previous installation (the default).
If you select this action, Inst attempts to restore the previous session and continue the installation.
Restore the previous installation session and let me look at it.
If you select this action, Inst displays the Inst> prompt. Use the list i command to see what remains to be installed, and then enter the go command.
Ignore the previous installation session.
If you select this action, the previous session is aborted (pending selections are disregarded) and Inst is started in a new session.
Failures during a checkpoint restarts are frequently caused by four conditions, which are usually easily corrected:
A missing software distribution
ERROR : The distribution server:pathname does not exist
This failure occurs if the distribution source that was saved in the checkpoint restart file no longer is exists or is unavailable. For example, the distribution source may be unaccessible because of a network failure or because the distribution was moved.
If the distribution is missing, you see the following message when you select item 1 to restart the installation; when you select item 2, you see this message when you try to list the distribution:
ERROR : The distribution server:pathname does not exist
Different software distribution
This failure occurs if the location of the distribution source in the checkpoint restart file is the same but the products in the distribution are different. For example, you see this error if a CD other than the correct distribution CD is loaded in the CD-ROM drive, or if the contents of the distribution directory were changed since the previous session.
If the software distribution is different from the previous installation, you see the following message when you select item 1 to restart the installation; when you select item 2, you see this message when you try to list the distribution:
ERROR : Invalid product sc.sw.sc in selections file
This failure occurs when the installed software on the target or the product dependencies on the distribution have changed since the previous installation. The changes result in conflicts that prevent installation.
If there are bad selections and you select item 1 to restart the installation, the installation is stopped and you see this message:
ERROR : Could not retry previous installation because of errors in the selections. Conflicts must be resolved.
After the message, you see the standard conflicts screen. If there are bad selections and you choose item 2 to restart the installation, you see only the conflicts screen. See “Using the conflicts Command” if you need instructions to proceed.
Not enough disk space
This failure occurs when the software that was selected for the previous installation requires more disk space than is available on the target. If there is not enough disk space and you select item 1 to restart the installation, you see this message:
ERROR : Could not retry previous installation because of errors in the selections. Installation requires too much space.
If you select item 2 to restart the installation, you see this message:
ERROR: Installation requires too much space.
To complete the installation, remove files from the target system or change your installation selections; then enter the go command.
If your distribution source was a CD on a remote installation server, cdinstmgr is still running on the installation server (see “Preparing the Remote CD-ROM Drive”). Follow this procedure to stop cdinstmgr:
Go to the remote server or use a remote login.
Type “quit” at the prompt.
This prompt is posted until you stop cdinstmgr (see “Preparing the Remote CD-ROM Drive”):
CD on CDdir for host hostname: type the word "done" when you are finished with this CD, "quit" if you are completely done: quit
You might see this message from cdinstmgr:
CD on CDdir for host hostname: the CD-ROM daemon was started by you,leave it running? (y/n)
If you answer yes, the CD is not ejected and cdromd(1M), which was started by cdinstmgr, is not stopped. If you answer no, cdinstmgr attempts to eject the CD and stop cdromd. If the CD is in use, this message is displayed and the CD is ejected:
CDdir: Device or resource busy
Eject the CD, if you wish.
To eject the CD, enter the eject(1) command at the installation server or from the remote login session:
If the CD is in use, this command fails and the CD is not ejected.
Sometimes a distribution contains configuration files, which are either required or recommended for operation, that exist on the target in a modified form (an /etc/rpc file, for example). When the target system contains modified configuration files, Inst preserves the modified files during the installation in one of two ways:
If the new configuration file is required for operation, Inst copies the existing target version to a file of the same name, appending a .O (obsolete) extension to it (/etc/rpc.O, for example). Then it installs the new, required version of the file by its standard name (/etc/rpc).
If the new configuration file is recommended (but not required), Inst leaves the existing file on the target untouched; it writes the recommended version to a file of the same name, appending a .N (new) extension to it. You can use .N files at your discretion.
For example, assume that the target contains a modified /etc/fstab file before an installation and the distribution contains a new, recommended /etc/fstab. After the installation, the original target version is still in /etc/fstab; the new version is contained in /etc/fstab.N.
|Note: In most cases, Inst handles modified configuration files with predictable results: after installation, the target contains an installed version and an alternate version of the file (which should subsequently be merged with the installed version and removed). However, if you repeat an installation of the same software, the results may be different.|
For example, it is possible to create both a .O and a .N version of the same configuration file. This happens when Inst creates a .O version of the file and you modify the newly installed version instead of merging and removing the .O version. During the repeat installation, Inst compares the installed file with the version on the distribution; when it finds that the two are different, it creates a copy of the distribution version, assigning it an .N extension.
As another example, assume that the .N version of a configuration file is merged with the installed version and erased. During the repeat installation, Inst detects differences between the installed file and the distribution version, so it creates a copy of the distribution version, assigning it a .N extension.
When a new version of a configuration file is created during an installation, Inst posts a message about the changed files after go processing is completed. The message, shown in Example 4-16, is repeated the next several times that the target system is rebooted.
Software installation has installed new configuration files and saved the previous version in some cases. You may need to update or merge old configuration files with the newer version. Please see “Updating Configuration Files” in the versions(1M) manual page for details.
To avoid compatibility problems, plan to merge configuration files if new versions were created. Use this procedure to merge configuration files:
Identify changed configuration files with this command:
# versions changed
Example 4-17 illustrates output of the previous versions command. (You can use an equivalent command from the Inst application: admin config changed.)
Configuration Files m = modified since initial installation ? = modification unknown blank = file is as originally installed /etc/halt ? /etc/halt.O m /etc/passwd /etc/passwd.N /etc/reboot ? /etc/reboot.O m /etc/services /etc/services.N
The .O versions of the configuration files are the earlier versions. In this case, the no-suffix version contains changes that are required for compatibility with the rest of the newly installed software, that increase functioning, or that fix bugs.
The .N versions of the configuration files are the versions created during the installation. They contain changes or new features that can be added to the no-suffix version of the configuration file at your option.
|Note: The release notes might have information about the changes that were made to configuration files in the new release.|
Merge information from both versions of the configuration files.
Use diff or xdiff to compare .O and .N files with their no-suffix counterparts. Transfer information that is needed from the .O version to the no-suffix version. Add information from the .N version to the no-suffix version if you want it.
Delete the .O and .N versions of the configuration files.
If you want to keep .O and .N files, rename them, since they might be removed automatically during the next installation. When you remove all .O and .N configuration files, no message about configuration files appears when you reboot the system, and the startup process is faster.