If you are using a jukebox as one of your backup devices, this chapter provides the information you need to configure and operate NetWorker with a jukebox. Jukeboxes automate the time-consuming task of loading, mounting, and labeling backup media. Once you have installed both NetWorker and one of the optional NetWorker Support for Jukebox options, enabled the jukebox, and loaded the jukebox with backup volumes, you can run unattended backups and recovers.
|Note: See “Backup Devices and Media” in Chapter 1 for a list of jukeboxes to use with Silicon Graphics systems.|
By using a jukebox, users can recover files easily and efficiently without assistance from an administrator. NetWorker automatically mounts the correct volume so that the recovery proceeds as long as the volume is loaded in the jukebox.
This chapter explains
testing the jukebox connection
configuring a jukebox
adding jukebox devices
labeling volumes and using optional bar codes
mounting jukebox devices manually
performing routine jukebox operations
To test the jukebox connection, run the jbexercise(1M) command with two pieces of “scratch” media loaded in the first and last slots of the jukebox. The tape drives should be empty with their door(s) open. See the jbexercise(1M) reference page for complete instructions.
When running jbexercise, you specify the control port and the device type. The control port for SCSI jukebox models is typically /dev/scsi/sc1d6l0. For example, this command runs jbexercise on the EXB-10i jukebox:
# /usr/etc/jbexercise -c /dev/scsi/sc1d6l0 -m EXB-10i
If you are using a second jukebox, the control port is typically /dev/scsi/sc1d4l0.
|Note: The EXABYTE EXB-10i must be the only device on its SCSI bus.|
Most jukebox configuration occurs when you enable your NetWorker Support for Jukebox option (described in the section “Enabling Autochangers” in Chapter 2). The Jukeboxes window displays the configurations you selected when you installed it. After the jukebox is installed, enabled, and configured you can make changes only to Available slots, Devices, Bar code reader, and Match bar code labels in the Jukeboxes window.
This section explains
using the Jukeboxes window
adding devices to a jukebox
changing available slots
To open the Jukeboxes window, select “Jukeboxes” from the Media pull-down menu, as shown in Figure 11-1. This command is activated for those sites that have enabled one or more NetWorker Support for Jukebox options. (See “Enabling Autochangers” in Chapter 2 for information on enabling Jukebox options.)
Figure 11-2 shows the Jukeboxes window.
The Jukeboxes window lists configurations that are determined when the NetWorker Support for Jukebox option is installed and enabled. The features of this window have the following functions:
|Jukeboxes scrolling list|
Displays the name of the jukebox currently selected in the jukeboxes scrolling list.
|Control port field|
Displays the system pathname of the device that controls the jukebox loading mechanism. The loading mechanism loads and unloads the backup volumes into and out of the device(s) in the jukebox.
Displays the system pathnames of the device(s) that controls the media drive currently selected from the Devices scrolling list. The scrolling list displays the system pathnames for all of the devices located in the jukebox. Before the jukebox is configured, the devices inside the jukebox are configured in the Devices window (like single-media devices). Devices inside a jukebox are designated by a “J” next to their pathname in the Devices display of the NetWorker Administrator window, as shown in Figure 11-3.
Use the change, add, and delete buttons to change, add, or delete the highlighted device pathname in the Jukeboxes window.
|Available slots scrolling list|
To add more devices to a jukebox, you must first use the Devices window to configure the NetWorker server to recognize the added devices. Then you must enter the pathnames for the jukebox devices in the Jukeboxes window so that NetWorker will recognize that these devices belong to the jukebox. After you have added a device pathname to the Devices window, you must also add it to the Devices field in the Jukeboxes window. NetWorker must associate the device in the jukebox with the jukebox name.
To add a device to a jukebox, follow these steps:
To open the Devices window, select “Devices” from the Media menu. Figure 11-4 shows the Devices window.
Click the Create button in the Devices window.
Enter the jukebox device pathname in the Name field.
Select the appropriate Media type choice for the device you are adding to the jukebox.
By default, “Yes” is selected for the Enabled choices.
Click the Apply button.
Select “Jukeboxes” from the Media menu to open the Jukeboxes window.
Enter the jukebox device pathname in the Devices field.
Click the add button to the right of the Devices scrolling list.
Click the Apply button.
|Note: If a jukebox has more than one device, the device pathnames must be listed in the same order as their physical location in the jukebox. If you are unsure of their order, refer to the jukebox hardware manual. Figure 11-6 diagrams an example.|
The Available slots feature allows you to control exactly which slots in the jukebox hold backup volumes available for backing up files. NetWorker uses all of the volumes in the jukebox for recovers. However, you can control which volumes NetWorker will automatically select for backups by designating a range of available slots in the jukebox.
For example, for a jukebox that contains 10 slots, you can designate slots 1 through 5 for NetWorker backups. The entries can be a range of slot numbers or a single slot number.
With two-sided media, the number of available slots will always be one-half the number of labels (or sides of the optical disks). For example, if you have 32 optical disks, labeled atlas.001.a to atlas.032.b, you have a total of 64 labels (and 64 sides). However, the number of available slots is 32.
To change the number of available slots, follow these steps:
Enter the range of available slots into the “Available slots” field. Figure 11-7 shows this field.
Click the change button.
The slot numbers appear in the “Available slots” scrolling list.
Click the Apply button.
|Note: Make sure you have placed backup volumes in all the available slots of the jukebox so NetWorker can proceed with an automatic backup.|
NetWorker uses the volume label and the optional bar code label for identifying backup volumes. This section explains how to label backup volumes in the jukebox, and how to create and apply optional bar codes to jukebox volumes:
labeling volumes in a jukebox
labeling with bar codes
viewing labeling status messages
NetWorker uses the label template currently selected in the Pools window to label the backup volumes loaded in the jukebox. The Jukebox Labeling dialog box gives you control over the volume labeling. You can use a label template to generate names as needed, or you can specify a single unique name. Choose a label template from the Pools window or create your own before starting a labeling session.
|Tip: Labeling volumes in the jukebox takes some time. You can perform the labeling process at a time when you do not need to back up or recover files.|
To start labeling the backup volumes in the jukebox, follow these steps:
If you are using a label template, choose it from the Pools window. If you are creating your own label template, do so in the Pools window.
Select the jukebox device in the Devices display in the NetWorker Administrator window. A jukebox device is identified by a letter J in parentheses next to its pathname. (For example, /dev/rmt/tps1d6nrnsv (J) indicates a device inside a jukebox.)
Click the Label speedbar button. The Jukebox Labeling dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 11-8.
The Jukebox Labeling dialog box displays the name of the NetWorker server and the system pathname of the selected jukebox device. NetWorker starts labeling the media in the jukebox with the label displayed in the Starting with field
The “First slot” and “Last slot” fields display the range of slots containing backup volumes that NetWorker labels according to the label template selected in the Pools window. Use the First slot and Last slot fields to control the range of slots in the jukebox for labeling or updating backup volumes.
To override the range of slots specified by the label template, enter slot numbers into the “First slot” and “Last slot” fields in the Jukebox Labeling dialog box.
To label a single volume, enter identical numbers in the “First slot” and “Last slot” fields. To label a single backup volume, you can use any name; it does not have to match the label template. For labeling a single volume, the first and last slots should be identical, as shown in Figure 11-9.
To label volumes in a series of slots, enter the range of slots in the jukebox containing the backup volumes that NetWorker will label in the First slot and Last slot fields. For example, if you previously labeled six tapes and need to label six more, your Jukebox Labeling dialog box might look like the one in Figure 11-10.
|Note: If you label a specific range of backup volumes, the “Starting with” name must match the label template format. If you label a single backup volume, you can use any name; it does not have to match the label template.|
From the Pool choices, select a pool for the volumes you are labeling in the jukebox.
Click the Manual recycle toggle button only if you want to recycle the backup volume manually. Clicking this button overrides any previous browse and retention policies chosen for the volume and its save sets, and the volume can only be recycled manually.
Use this option if you plan on backing up important data to either cloned or non-cloned volumes, and you want to decide when the data and the volumes are ready for recycling. You can accomplish the same goal by post-labeling in the Volumes window.
|Note: Only the pools that have been enabled in the Pools window appear in the Jukebox Labeling dialog box.|
Click the Ok button to begin the labeling process.
A confirmation dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 11-11.
This dialog box is designed to keep you from relabeling media accidentally. When a backup volume is relabeled, its contents under the previous label cannot be recovered. When you select Ok to confirm, the volumes in the slots are loaded, labeled, and unloaded.
|Caution: If you remove backup volumes from the jukebox, remember that there might still be one or more volumes left in the jukebox devices. Unmount them by selecting the jukebox devices and selecting “Unmount” from the Media menu in the NetWorker Administrator window. This step prevents you from accidentally relabeling these volumes when you reload the jukebox with new volumes.|
|Note: For more information on labeling volumes, see “Using Label Templates” in Chapter 7.|
Labeling media with optional bar code labels provides two distinct advantages: it significantly speeds up volume inventory and provides improved labeling accuracy.
Using bar code labels for inventory is fast and efficient because you do not have to load the volumes into the device. Instead, the jukebox scans the external bar code labels with a laser beam while the volumes remain in their slots, greatly reducing the time it takes NetWorker to locate a volume or determine the contents of a carousel cartridge.
Bar code labels also provide greater labeling accuracy because the labels are affixed to the media before they are loaded and scanned in the jukebox. Once the jukebox scans the bar code label, NetWorker records and tracks it in the media index.
The volume label and the optional bar code label are both pieces of information that NetWorker uses to identify backup volumes. Both labels are recorded in the media index. However, the volume label is also recorded internally on the media (internal volume label). NetWorker uses bar code labels for inventorying volumes and uses the volume labels to identify the volumes needed for backup and recovery. You can make the volume and bar code label match by selecting the appropriate choices for bar code labeling in the Jukeboxes window.
|Caution: Do not use identical bar code labels for any of your NetWorker backup volumes. Using identical labels defeats the purpose of using bar code labels, which is to speed up the inventory process and ensure labeling accuracy.|
This section explains
designing a labeling scheme
labeling volumes with bar code labels
using bar codes that do not match volume labels
If you decide to use bar code labels on your existing backup volumes, you must first apply the bar code labels to the existing volumes. Then you load and mount each volume individually, so NetWorker can match up the bar code label with the existing volume label.
Using a consistent labeling scheme helps you better organize and track your backup volumes. It also aids the inventory process if all the volumes use bar code labels rather than just a limited number of them.
|Note: When NetWorker relabels volumes automatically, it reuses the original volume label name. You can change the label name only if you relabel the volumes manually.|
It is not necessary to label existing backup volumes with bar code labels if they are stored in a vault or offsite for long periods at a time, because you will not inventory these volumes often, if ever. However, if you have volumes you use often for recovery or for overwriting with new data, it is beneficial to label them with bar code labels to save hours of time when backup volumes are inventoried.
You can purchase a variety of bar code labels from a third-party vendor. You can choose numeric, alphanumeric, or a special combination of numbers and characters to meet your labeling needs. You can order bar code labels that match your current volume labeling scheme. Labeling instructions for bar code labels should be provided with the jukebox hardware documentation. If you have questions about the bar code labels, call the hardware manufacturer.
|Note: NetWorker displays both the bar code label and volume label in the Pending display of the NetWorker Administrator window when a volume is requested. You can also view both the volume label and its associated bar code label in the Volume Management window.|
Use the Jukeboxes window and the Jukebox Labeling dialog box to label your volumes with bar codes. Follow these steps:
Place the volumes with the bar code labels in the jukebox.
Open the Jukeboxes window by selecting “Jukeboxes” from the Media menu. Figure 11-12 shows the Jukeboxes window.
Select “Yes” from the Bar code reader choices.
If you want the volume label (normally created using a label template) to match the bar code label, select “Yes” from the Match bar code labels choices. If you do not want to override the label created by the label template with the bar code label, select “No.”
In either case, you will have two labels: the volume label (which may or may not match the bar code label depending upon your bar code choices in the Jukeboxes window) and the bar code label.
Open the Jukebox Labeling dialog box by clicking the Label speedbar button or by selecting “Label” from the Media menu.
If you chose “Yes” for the Match bar code labels choices in the Jukeboxes window, the Starting with field in the Jukebox Labeling dialog box displays Bar Code Label, as shown in Figure 11-13.
If you chose “No” for the Match bar code labels choices in the Jukeboxes window, the “Starting with” field in the Jukebox Labeling dialog box displays a label template name, as shown in Figure 11-14.
Once you have completed selecting your bar code label choices and labeling the backup volume, both label names for the volume appear in the Volume Management window.
The Volume Management window looks similar to the one shown in Figure 11-15.
|Caution: Do not use identical bar code labels for any of your NetWorker backup volumes. Using identical labels defeats the purpose of using bar code labels, which is to speed up the inventory process and ensure labeling accuracy. If you try to label a second volume with an identical bar code label, and you have enabled Matching bar code labels in the Jukeboxes window, NetWorker displays an error message and does not allow you to label the second volume. The error message identifies the jukebox slots containing the two volumes with identical labels and the bar code number. To correct the problem, apply a different label and begin the labeling process again, or disable Match bar code labels in the Jukeboxes window when you label the second volume.|
If you choose not to match the volume label to the bar code label, create and attach volume labels to the outside of your media:
Affix all of the bar code labels.
Load the volumes in the jukebox.
To begin the labeling process, select “Yes” for Bar code reader choices, and select “No” for Match bar code labels choices in the Jukeboxes window. NetWorker uses the next available label from the label template for the volume name.
NetWorker proceeds labeling the volumes and records both labels in the media index.
After NetWorker completes the labeling process, open the Volume Management window to determine the volume label and bar code label for each volume.
Create your own volume labels to attach to the backup volumes. Use the information in the Volume Management window to match the correct volume labels to the bar code labels.
Whenever you start a labeling operation for a jukebox, NetWorker displays a status message in the Jukebox Labeling dialog box to show the progress of the labeling process.
A message appears in the dialog box, as shown in Figure 11-16.
You can cancel the label operation by clicking the Cancel button. When labeling is complete, another message informs you that the labeling operation is finished. Click the Ok button to close the dialog box.
To mount a backup volume in a jukebox, you must first make sure the jukebox device is selected in the NetWorker main window. This is especially important if the NetWorker server is configured to use more than one device.
|Tip: Although jukebox devices are identified by a “J” next to the pathname in the main window, it is a good idea to place an adhesive label on the outside of a jukebox identifying its device pathname(s), to remind you of which device pathname(s) belong to the jukebox. This practice is especially helpful when you are using more than one jukebox.|
To mount a jukebox volume manually, follow these steps:
Select a jukebox from the Devices display.
Click the Mount speedbar button. The Jukebox Mounting dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 11-17.
The Jukebox Mounting window displays the name of the NetWorker server and the system pathname of the selected jukebox device. The Volume scrolling list displays the slot numbers ( Slot), the label of volume stored in the slot ( Volume), and the percent capacity filled of the volume ( % Used).
The Jukebox Mounting window also displays the pool ( Pool) to which the volumes belongs. This information can be used to determine which volumes to mount in the jukebox. You might not want to mount volumes that are full or near capacity. The name of the currently selected backup volume appears in the Volume field.
To mount the selected backup volume in the jukebox, select it from the list, and click the Ok button.
This section contains information and suggestions for operating the jukebox on a day-to-day basis. It explains
viewing jukebox notices
checking jukebox space
recycling versus adding more backup volumes
taking inventory of the jukebox contents
using pools with a jukebox
cleaning the devices
calibrating the devices
NetWorker uses electronic mail to send notices about NetWorker events. The jukebox software uses the three Tape mount request notices to inform the system administrator that the jukebox needs attention. The notification Tape mount request 1 comes undefined, so that you may determine your own message for this particular notification.
The following situations require attention:
the backup volumes in the jukebox are 90% full
the jukebox is out of space for the backups and needs more backup volumes to continue
the jukebox has a mechanical problem
To open the Notifications window, select “Notifications” from the Customize pull-down menu. The Notifications window with the three tape mount request notifications is shown in Figure 11-18.
See “Checking NetWorker Notices” in Chapter 8 for more information on the Notifications window.
NetWorker automatically mounts the correct volume so that the recovery proceeds as long as the volume is loaded in the jukebox. If NetWorker requires backup volumes for a recovery that are not loaded in the jukebox, a notice appears in the Pending display of the NetWorker Administrator window.
|Note: After you correct a jukebox problem, you must mount a backup volume (using the “Mount” command from the Operation pull-down menu in the main window) before continuing to back up or recover files.|
To find out how much space is available in the jukebox, you can use either the Jukebox Mounting window (shown in Figure 11-17) or the nsrjb(1M) command. The Jukebox Mounting window displays all the media in the jukebox and the percentage used of each tape.
If you prefer to use the nsrjb command, follow these steps:
Open a shell.
Enter the nsrjb -v command:
mars# /usr/etc/nsrjb -v -jjukeboxname
NetWorker displays information about the backup volumes in the jukebox that looks similar to this:
Jukebox 8LT: slot volume used pool 1: bitbucket.008 full Default 2: bitbucket.009 full Default 3: bitbucket.010 full Default 4: bitbucket.011 full Default 5: bitbucket.012 full Default 6: bitbucket.013 20% Default 7: -* - * not registered in the NetWorker media database 6 volumes, 1 less than 80% full. 56 GB total capacity, 10 GB remaining (85% full) drive 0 (/dev/rmt/tps131d6nrnsv) slot 1: bitbucket.008
Notice the information about the registered volumes, total capacity, and remaining capacity. This information tells you how much space is still available in the jukebox.
NetWorker can save files on volumes in either appendable or recyclable mode as indicated in the Volume Management window. If the volumes inside of the jukebox are in full mode, they cannot receive backups.
If your volumes are all in full mode, you can do one of the following:
If you need to keep the volumes for long-term storage, remove the full volumes and replace them with new media. Label and mount the new volumes.
If you do not need the data on the full volumes, you can manually change the mode to recyclable in the Volume Management window. NetWorker overwrites the data on the volumes with new backups and maintains the existing labels.
|Note: The mode of a volume is automatically changed to recyclable when all of the save sets on the volume have passed the time period specified by the retention policy of the client that generated them.|
There are advantages to either recycling or adding more media to the pool. By recycling, you reuse the same backup volumes and do not add new volumes to the pool. However, the media may wear out over time and have a higher failure rate.
On the other hand, if your site requires that you maintain the backups in storage for a certain period of time, then you may have to add more media to the pool instead of recycling it. For example, if the jukebox needs new backup volumes every three months, and the company policy is to maintain the backups for a year, you have to keep adding new media to the pool until you can recycle the backup volumes that contain expired or old backups.
Whether or not you use bar code labels in conjunction with your volume labels, when NetWorker assigns a volume label, it registers the location of the volumes in the jukebox slots. If you do not change the volumes in the jukebox after labeling them, NetWorker can access the volumes because each volume label is assigned to a specific slot.
However, if you change the contents of the jukebox without performing the labeling process or if you move volumes into new slots, you must tell NetWorker that the jukebox now holds a different set of labeled volumes or that the volumes are in a different order. This procedure is called taking an inventory.
When you take an inventory of the volumes in the jukebox, NetWorker reads the label of each volume and remembers its slot number. For example, if you have more than one job pack (removable rack of tapes) for a jukebox, you must take an inventory each time you remove one job pack and load another one into the jukebox, unless you perform the label process for the new job pack.
To tell NetWorker you have changed the contents of the jukebox, follow these steps:
Load the new backup volumes into the jukebox.
Select the jukebox device in the Devices panel of the main window. Remember, jukebox devices are marked with a “J.”
Open the Jukebox Inventory dialog box by selecting “Inventory” from the Media menu. Figure 11-19 shows the dialog box.
Make sure the slot numbers in the First and Last Slot fields are the slots you want to inventory. If they are not, enter the correct range of slot numbers.
The Jukebox Inventory dialog box displays a message that monitors the progress of the inventory operation.
You can cancel the inventory operation after NetWorker completes inventorying the current volume by clicking Cancel in the Jukebox Inventory dialog box.
Click Cancel to close the window when the inventory is complete.
When an inventory is completed, NetWorker has registered the contents of the jukebox and can therefore proceed with its network-wide backup and recover services.
|Note: For information on determining jukebox capacity, see “Monitoring Backup Devices” in Chapter 8.|
If you plan to have full and nonfull backups, it is a good idea to estimate the number of volumes needed for your full backups and assign them to the Full pool in the Label window. This technique ensures that your full backups are located in a consecutive range of slots in the jukebox so the volumes can be easily removed.
Check the jukebox manufacturer's documentation for information about the frequency and cleaning method for the jukebox's devices. It is important to keep the jukebox in good working order with regular maintenance. Refer to the jukebox hardware manuals for information about preventive maintenance.